Current distribution of Pilularia globulifera L. in Poland – changes of geographical range and habitat preferences

Ewa Szczęśniak, Stanisław Rosadziński, Krzysztof Spałek, Mariusz Szymanowski, Agnieszka Kreitschitz, Jerzy Kruk, Michał Śliwiński, Ryszard Kamiński

Abstract


Pilularia globulifera is a subatlantic European fern threatened with extinction. In Poland, it reaches the eastern border of its continuous range. Up to the end of the 20th century, it was observed here in 21 stands; only 2 of them existed by the second half of the century, so the species was categorized as critically endangered. Five new locations have been found in western and northwestern Poland during the last 10 years. Abundant and permanent populations grow in 3 locations, while 2 stands were ephemeral. All the current stands are situated in anthropogenic habitats with spontaneous vegetation, in oligotrophic to eutrophic waters. One of the new localities is about 280 km distant from the eastern range of the limit known previously. Pilularia forms its own plant community Pilularietum globuliferae, enters plots of Ranunculo-Juncetum bulbosi and occurs in mesotrophic to eutrophic rushes of Eleocharis palustris, Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia and Equisetum fluviatile. Specimens are vigorous and regularly produce sporocarps.

Keywords


water ferns; Pilularia globulifera; apophyte; climate warming; Poland

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References


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