The gynoecium structure in Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl., Sansevieria parva N.E. Brown and S. trifasciata Prain (Asparagaceae) with special emphasis on the structure of the septal nectary

Anastasiya Odintsova, Oksana Fishchuk, Aneta Sulborska


In the gynoecium of Dracaena fragrans, Sansevieria parva and S. trifasciata, the vertical zonality of the ovary, the structural zonality of the gynoecium following Leinfellner, and the zonality of the septal nectary were studied. The ovary structure is characterised by a high parenchymatous ovary base and ovary roof as well as a long septal nectary that can be extended in both of them and opens with secretory nectary splits. The gynoecium of these species has a short synascidiate zone, a fertile hemisynascidiate zone with a median ovule attached, a hemisymlicate zone (only in D. fragrans) and an asymplicate zone (with postgenitally fused carpels) that comprises the ovary roof, common style and stigma. In the septal nectary, we detected three vertical zones: the basal zone of the distinct nectary in the ovary base or/and the synascidiate zone, the zone of the common nectary (in the hemisynascidiate and hemisymlicate zones) and the zone of the external nectary (the nectary splits in the asymplicate zone). The gynoecium structure in the studied species shows differences in the length of the gynoecium and septal nectary zones and also in the interrelationships of all these three types of vertical zonality.


Dracaena; Sansevieria; gynoecium morphology; gynoecium vertical zonality; ovary structure; septal nectary zonality

Full Text:



Rudall PJ, Conran JG, Chase MW. Systematics of Ruscaceae/Convallariaceae: a combined morphological and molecular investigation. Bot J Linn Soc. 2000; 134 (1–2): 73–92.

Smets EF, Ronse Decraene L-P, Caris P, Rudall PJ. Floral nectaries in Monocotyledons: distribution and evolution. [In:] Wilson KL, Morrison DA. (eds). Monocots: systematics and evolution. Melbourne: CSIRO; 2000.

Rudall PJ. Unique floral structures and iterative evolutionary themes in Asparagales: Insights from a morphological cladistic analysis. Bot Rev. 2003; 68(4): 488–509.[0488:UFSAIE]2.0.CO;2

Remizova M, Sokoloff D, Rudall PJ. Evolution of the monocot gynoecium: evidence from comparative morphology and development in Tofieldia, Japonolirion, Petrosavia and Narthecium. Pl Syst Evol. 2006; 258:183–209.

Remizova MV, Sokoloff DD, Rudall PJ. Evolutionary history of the monocot flower. Ann Missouri Bot Gard. 2010; 97(4): 617–645.

Wunderlich R. Die Agavaceae Hutchinsons im Lichte ihrer Embryologie ihres Gynoeceum-, Staubblatt- und Blattbaues. Österr. Bot Zeitschr. 1950; 97(3–5): 437–502.

Bos JJ. Dracaenaceae. Flowering plants: Monocotyledons: Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). In: Kubitzki K, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants. III. Springer; 1998.

Bogler DJ, Simpson BB. Phylogeny of Agavaceae based on ITS rDNA sequence variation. Am J Bot. 1996; 83: 1225–1235.

Takhtajan A. Flowering Plants. 2nd ed. Springer; 2009.

Kim J-H, Kim D-K, Forest F, Fay MF, Chase MW. Molecular phylogenetics of Ruscaceae sensu lato and related families (Asparagales) based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Ann Bot. 2010; 106(5): 775–790.

Lu P-L, Morden C. Phylogenetics of the plant genera Dracaena and Pleomele (Asparagaceae). Botanica Orientalis – J Plant Sci. 2010; 7: 64–72. 10.3126/botor.v7i0.4385

van Heel WA. On the development of some gynoecia with septal nectaries. Blumea. 1988; 33(2): 477–504.

Leinfellner W. Der Bauplan des synkarpen Gynözeums. Österr Bot Ges. 1950; 97: 403–436.

Daumann E. Das Blütennektarium der Monocotyledonen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner systematischen und phylogenetischen Bedeutung. Feddes Repert. 1970; 80(7–8): 463–590. (in German)

Schmid R. Functional interpretations of the morphology and anatomy of septal nectaries. Acta Bot Neerl. 1985; 34 (1): 125–128.

Odintsova A. Vertical zonality of septal nectaries of Monocots. Modern Phytomorphology. 2013; 4: 317–318. (in Ukrainian)

Odintsova A. Two principal models of Monocots’ septal nectaries. Visnyk of the Lviv Univ Ser Biol. 2013; 61: 41–50. (in Ukrainian)

Barykina RP, Veselova TD, Deviatov AG, Djalilova HH, Iljina GM, Chubatova NV. Handbook of the botanical microtechniques. Moscow: Moscow University Press; 2004.

Fishchuk O, Odintsova A. Morphology and vascular anatomy of the flower in Sansevieria suffruticosa N. E. Br. (Asparagaceae Juss.). Studia Biologica. 2013; 7(1): 139–148. (in Ukrainian)

Fishchuk O, Odintsova A. Morphology and vascular anatomy of the flower in Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce (Asparagaceae Juss.). Visnyk of the Lviv Univ Ser Biol. 2013; 62: 99–107. (in Ukrainian)

Fishchuk O, Odintsova A. Gynoecium morphology in Sansevieria spicata (Cav.) How., S. doonerv N. E. Br. and S. fernwood Grigsby (Dracaenaceae Salisb.). Proc. 2nd Internat. Sci. Conf. and schools «Conservation of tropical and subtropical plants biodiversity» (Kharkiv, October, 7–10, 2013). – Kharkiv: Tarasenko V.P. 2013: 137–140. (in Ukrainian)

Novikoff A, Odintsova A. Some aspects of gynoecium morphology in three bromeliad species. Wulfenia. 2008; 15: 13–24.