A study on achene macro- and micromorphological characters of Polish species of the Senecio jacobaea group

Leszek Bednorz, Marek Podsiedlik

Abstract


A study on achene macro- and micromorphological characters of the following five Polish species of the Senecio jacobaea group was carried out by LM and SEM: S. aquaticus (var. aquaticus and var. barbareifolius), S. erucifolius (subsp. erucifolius and subsp. tenuifolius), S. jacobaea, S. paludosus, and S. subalpinus. The achenes differed in several characters, but the most distinctive differences concerned their indument, especially the length and morphology of hairs. The study clearly shows that two morphologically similar species, S. jacobaea and S. erucifolius, which are often confused can be easily distinguished based on the morphological characters of achenes. Additionally, we showed differences between the achenes of S. erucifolius subsp. erucifolius and subsp. tenuifolius, the two taxa which were not distinguished in floristic studies and herbarium collections from Poland. The key to determine Polish species of the Senecio jacobaea group, based on the morphological characters of achenes, is also given.

Keywords


Asteraceae; Senecio jacobea group; taxonomy; fruits; SEM; LM

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barthlott W. 1981. Epidermal and seed surface characters of plants: systematic applicability and some evolutionary aspects. Nord. J. Bot. 1: 345-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.1981.tb00704.x

Barthlott W. 1984. Microstructural features of seed surfaces. [In:] V.H. Heywood, D.A. Moore (eds), Current concepts in plant taxonomy. Academic Press, London.

Bojňanský V., Fargašová A. 2007. Atlas of Seeds and Fruits of Central and East-European Flora: The Carpathian Mountains Region. Springer, Dordrecht. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5362-7

Bremer K. 1994. Asteraceae: Cladistics & Classification. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Chater A.O., Walters S.M. 1976. Senecio L. [In:] T.G. Tutin, V.H. Heywood, N.A. Burges, D.M. Moore, D.H. Valentine, S.M. Walters (eds), Flora Europaea Vol. 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Drury D.G., Watson L. 1965. Anatomy and the taxonomic significance of gross vegetative morphology in Senecio. New Phytol. 64: 307-314. http://dx.doi.org/

1111/j.1469-8137.1965.tb05399.x

Hodálová I., Grulich V., Horová L., Valachovič M., Marhold K. 2007. Occurrence of tetraploid and octoploid cytotypes in Senecio jacobaea ssp. jacobaea (Asteraceae) in Pannonia and the Carpathians. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 153: 231-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2007.00605.x

Hodálová I., Mared’a P., Vinikarová A., Grulich V., Rotreklová O. 2010. A new cytotype of Jacobaea vulgaris (Asteraceae): frequency, morphology and origin. Nord. J. Bot. 28: 413-427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2010.00603.x

Jeffrey C., Halliday P., Wilmot-Dear M., Jones S.W. 1977. Generic and sectional limits in Senecio (Compositae). I. Progress report. Kew Bull. 32: 47–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4117259

Jeffrey C. 1992. The tribe Senecioneae (Compositae) in the Mascarene Islands with an annotated world check-list of the genera of the tribe. VI. Notes on Compositae. Kew Bull. 47: 49-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4110768

Macloskie G. 1883. Achenial hairs and fibers of Compositae. Am. Nat. 17, 1: 31-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/273246

McEvoy P.B. 1984. Dormancy and dispersal in dimorphic achenes of tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobea L. (Compositae). Oecologia, 61: 160-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00396754

Nordenstam B. 1978. Taxonomic studies in the tribe Senecioneae (Compositae). Opera Bot. 44: 1-84.

Pelser P.B., Gravendeel B., Van der Meijden R. 2002. Tackling speciose genera: species composition and phylogenetic position of Senecio sect. Jacobaea (Asteraceae) based on plascid and nrDNA sequences. Am. J. Bot. 89(6): 929-939. http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.89.6.929

Pelser P.B., Gravendeel B., Van der Meijden R. 2003. Phylogeny reconstruction in the gap between too little and too much divergence: the closest relatives of Senecio jacobaea (Asteraceae) according to DNA sequences and AFLPs. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 29: 613-628. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00139-8

Pelser P.B., Houchin R. 2004 Taxonomic studies on Senecio aquaticus (Asteraceae). A recommendation for the taxonomic status of Aquaticus and Barbareifolius. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145: 489-498. http://dx.doi.org/

1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00300.x

Pelser P.B., Van den Hof K., Gravendeel B., Van der Meijden R. 2004. The systematic value of morphological characters in Senecio sect. Jacobaea (Asteraceae) as compared to DNA sequences. Syst. Bot. 29(3): 790-805. http://dx.doi.org/10.1600/0363644041744482

Pelser P.B., Nordenstan B., Kadereit J.W., Watson J.E. 2007. An ITS phylogeny of tribe Senecioneae and a new delimitation of Senecio L. Taxon, 56(4): 1062-1077. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/25065905

Shishkin K.B. 1995. Senecio L. [In:] K.B. Shishkin, E.G. Bobrov (eds), Flora U.S.S.R Vol. 26, Dehra Dun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh & Koeltz Scientific Books.

Vincent P.L.D. 1996. Progress on clarifying the generic concept of Senecio based on an extensive world-wide sample of taxa. [In:] D.J.N. Hind, H.J. Beentje (eds), Compositae: Systematics. Vol. 1. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994, Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Xue-in C., Guo-hail J. 2007. A study on fruit coats micro-morphological characters of thirty-six species of Compositae from alpine meadow in eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Pratacultural Science, 24(5): 9-15.