Influence of growth retardant on growth and development of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch

Anna Pobudkiewicz


This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of single foliar flurprimidol treatment on morphology and transpiration of ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias. The growth retardant flurprimidol (Topflor 015 SL) was applied once as a foliar spray at concentrations of 5, 10 or 15 mg × dm-3 when lateral shoots were about 5 cm in length. Single foliar flurprimidol treatment was sufficient to inhibit stem elongation of both poinsettia cultivars. The degree of growth inhibition depended on cultivar and growth retardant concentration. As compared to the control, the shoots of flurprimidol treated ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ plants were up to 44% and 37% shorter, respectively. The desirable plant heights for ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias were obtained with flurprimidol at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg × dm-3, respectively. The shoots of flurprimidol sprayed poinsettia were also more rigid and aligned relative to each other and thus the bracts on the plant were placed on the same level. The diameters of growth retardant treated poinsettias were up to 13% narrower. The leaf areas, petiole lengths, fresh and dry weights of ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias treated with flurprimidol were substantially smaller as compared to the control. The bract diameters of both poinsettia cultivars were only slightly affected by growth retardant application. Plants exposed to flurprimidol had also intensified green leaf pigmentation. There was almost no abscission of the oldest leaves in the low portions of growth retardant treated plants, compared to those of the control ones. Flurprimidol had no effect on transpiration rate per unit leaf area and stomatal conductance in both poinsettia cultivars. No phytotoxicity was observed in flurprimidol treated plants. Chemical name used: α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluromethoxy)phenyl]-5-pyrimidinemethanol (flurprimidol).


poinsettia; growth inhibition; flurprimidol; stomatal conductance; transpiration

Full Text:



Moe R, Fjeld T, Mortensen LM. Stem elongation and keeping quality in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.) as affected by temperature and supplementary lighting. Sci Hortic. 1992; 50(1–2): 127–136.

Lewis KP, Faust JE, Sparkman JD, Grimes LW. The effect of daminozide and chlormequat on the growth and flowering of poinsettia and pansy. HortScience. 2004; 39(6): 1315–1318.

Niu G, Heins R, Carlson W. Using paclobutrazol to control height of poinsettia “Freedom”. HortTechnology. 2002; 12(2): 232–236.

Faust JE, Korczynski PC, Klein R. Effects of paclobutrazol drench application date on poinsettia height and flowering. HortTechnology. 2001; 11(4): 557–560.

Currey CJ, Lopez RG. Early flurprimidol drench applications suppress final height of four poinsettia cultivars. HortTechnology. 2011; 21(1): 35–40.

Bailey DA, Miller WB. Poinsettia developmental and postproduction responses to growth retardants and irradiance. HortScience. 1991; 26(12): 1501–1503.

Lodeta KB, Ban SG, Perica S, Dumičić G, Bućan L. Response of poinsettia to drench application of growth regulators. J Food Agric Env. 2010; 8(1): 297–301.

McDaniel GL. Comparison of paclobutrazol, flurprimidol, and tetcyclacis for controlling poinsettia height. HortScience. 1986; 21(5): 1161–1163.

Sachs RM, Lang A, Bretz CF, Roach J. Shoot histogenesis: subapical meristematic activity in a caulescent plant and the action of gibberellic acid and Amo-1618. Am J Bot. 1960; 47: 260–266.

Reed AN, Curry EA, Williams MW. Translocation of triazole growth retardants in plant tissues. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 1989;114:893–898.

Pobudkiewicz A, Nowak J. Response of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cvs. Altis and Surf to flurprimidol application. J Fruit Ornam Plant Res. 1997; 5: 43–52.

Pobudkiewicz A, Nowak J. Effect of flurprimidol and silver thiosulfate (STS) on the growth and flowering of “Prima” lilies grown as pot plants. Acta Hortic. 1992; 325: 193–198.

Pobudkiewicz A, Nowak J, Podwyszyńska M, Przybyła A. The effect of growth retardants on growth and flowering of dwarf alstroemeria. Acta Agrobot. 2000; 53(2): 77–83.

Pobudkiewicz A, Podwyszyńska M. The response of Globba winitii (Siam) to application of flurprimidol. Folia Hort. 1999; 11(1).

Pobudkiewicz A, Treder J. Effects of flurprimidol and daminozide on growth and flowering of oriental lily “Mona Lisa”. Sci Hortic Amst. 2006; 110(4): 328–333.

Schuch UK. Response of chrysanthemum to uniconazole and daminozide applied as dip to cuttings or as foliar spray. J Plant Growth Regul. 1994; 13(3): 115–121.

Norcini JG. Growth and water status of pruned and unpruned woody landscape plants treated with Sumagic (uniconazole), Cutless (flurprimidol), and Atrimmec (dikegulac). J Env Hortic. 1991; 9: 231–235.

STATISTICA 10.0. StatSoft; 2011.

Barrett JE, Nell TA. Transpiration in growth retardant treated poinsettia, bean and tomato (ancymidol, chlormequat, daminozide). Annu Meet Fla State Hort Soc. 1981; 94: 85–87.

Sanderson KC, Martin WC, Reed RB. Slow-release growth retardant tablets for potted plants. HortScience. 1989; 24(6): 960–962.

Pobudkiewicz AK, Goldsberry KL. The optimum growth stage of dwarf carnation for effective Sumagic application. Denver, CO: Colorado State University; 1989. (Research bulletin/Colorado Greenhouse Growers’ Association; vol 464).

Pobudkiewicz AK, Goldsberry KL. Comparison of dwarf carnation responses to retardants sumagic-TM and Bonzi-TM. Denver, CO: Colorado Greenhouse Growers’ Association; 1989. (Research bulletin/Colorado Greenhouse Growers’ Association; vol 469).

Pobudkiewicz AK, Goldsberry KL. Effect of Cycocel on the height of dwarf carnation “Snowmass”. Denver, CO: Colorado Greenhouse Growers’ Association; 1989. (Research bulletin/Colorado Greenhouse Growers’ Association; vol 473).

Pobudkiewicz A, Goldsberry KL. Controlling the growth habit of dwarf pot roses with uniconazole (Sumagic TM). Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University; 1989. (Research bulletin/Colorado Greenhouse Growers’ Association; vol 471).

Pobudkiewicz A. Response of seed·propagated geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum L. H. Bailey) to application of flurprimidol. Acta Agrobot. 2000; 53(1): 31–38.

Pobudkiewicz A. Controlling the growth habit of Streptocarpus hybridus with flurprimidol. J Fruit Ornam Plant Res. 2000;8(1):9–17.

Pobudkiewicz A. The response of Cuphea ignea A. DC. to flurprimidol application. Folia Hort. 2000; 12: 99–106.

Grossmann K. Plant growth retardants as tools in physiological research. Physiol Plant. 1990; 78(4): 640–648.

Grossmann K, Kwiatkowski J, Siebecker H, Jung J. Regulation of plant morphology by growth retardants: effects on phytohormone levels in soybean seedlings determined by immunoassay. Plant Physiol. 1987; 84(4): 1018–1021.

Sterrett JP, Tworkoski TJ, Kujawski PT. Physiological responses of deciduous tree root collar drenched with flurprimidol. J Arboric. 1989; 15: 120–124.

Vaigro-Wolff AL, Warmund MR. Suppression of growth and plant moisture stress of forsythia with flurprimidol and XE-1019. HortScience. 1987; 22: 884–885.

Abdul Jaleel C, Manivannan P, Sankar B, Kishorekumar A, Sankari S, Panneersel-

vam R. Paclobutrazol enhances photosynthesis and ajmalicine production in Catharanthus roseus. Process Biochem. 2007; 42(11): 1566–1570.

Steinberg SL, Zajicek JM, McFarland MJ. Water relations of Hibiscus following pruning or chemical growth regulation. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 1991; 116(3): 465–470.

Graham JS, Hobbs SD, Zaerr JB. The effect of flurprimidol on bud flush, shoot growth, and on endogenous gibberellins and abscisic acid of Douglas-fir seedlings. J Plant Growth Regul. 1994; 13(3): 131–136.

Hofman PJ, Menary RC, Clark RJ. Effect of the growth retardant EL500 on growth and plant growth substances in fennel (Foeniculum sp.). J Essent Oil Res. 1992; 4(4): 401–409.

Ulger S, Akdesir O, Demiral S, Atmaca A. Investigation of the effects of external daminozide application on endogenous hormone levels in “Memecik” olive trees. Acta Hort. 2010; 884: 153–156.

Setha S, Kondo S. Abscisic acid levels and anti-oxidant activity are affected by an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 in apple seedlings. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol. 2009; 84: 340–344.

Mishra D, Pradhan GC. Effect of transpiration-reducing chemicals on growth, flowering, and stomatal opening of tomato plants. Plant Physiol. 1972; 50(2): 271–274.