Diversity and environmental variability of riparian tall herb fringe communities of the order Convolvuletalia sepium in Polish river valleys

Monika Myśliwy


The riparian tall herb fringe communities of the order Convolvuletalia sepium represent an integral part of the natural vegetation in river valleys. The major objective of this study was to assess the relationships between the diversity and variability of these communities and various environmental factors. The survey was conducted in northwestern Poland, along 101 randomly selected 1–2-km long sections of 24 rivers and the Szczecin Lagoon. Samples were collected in 2008–2013 in all types of tall herb fringe vegetation found in the surveyed river sections. Data collected included hydrogeomorphic variables, soil parameters, potential and actual vegetation, and dominant land use form. A total of 24 vegetation units were documented, based on 300 sample plots (relevés). Tall herb fringe communities occurring in valleys of large rivers (Senecionetum fluviatilis, Fallopio-Cucubaletum bacciferi, Achilleo salicifoliae-Cuscutetum lupuliformis, Convolvulo sepium-Cuscutetum europaeae typicum and chaerophylletosum bulbosi subass. nov., Rubus caesius community, Solidago gigantea community) exhibited floristic and ecological differences in comparison with plant communities from small rivers (Eupatorietum cannabini typicum, aegopodietosum and cardaminetosum amarae subass. nov., Epilobio hirsuti-Convolvuletum sepium, Soncho palustris-Archangelicetum litoralis, Convolvulo sepium-Cuscutetum europaeae aegopodietosum, Urtico-Convolvuletum sepium typicum and aegopodietosum, Urtica dioica community, Galeopsis speciosa community, Rubus idaeus community). This finding fully justified their division into two alliances: the Senecionion fluviatilis and the Archangelicion litoralis, respectively. Significant differences between the tall herb fringe communities associated with large rivers and the plant communities occurring along small rivers included plant species richness, moss layer cover, contribution of river corridor plants, level of invasion, influence of adjacent plant communities on the floristic composition, relative elevation and distance away from the riverbed, degree of shading, proportions of all grain size fractions, soil pH, contents of organic matter, humus, organic carbon, total nitrogen, bioavailable phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and calcium in the soil. The differences in environmental characteristics of individual plant communities were significant as well; they showed that most vegetation units were well defined. The variables that best discriminated between riparian tall herb fringe communities included the natural potential vegetation unit Salici-Populetum, headwater seeps, soil pH, sample elevation above the river water level, river size, flooding, degree of shading, soil moisture, K2O and CaO contents, and C/N ratio. The integration of the main riparian gradients (longitudinal, lateral, vertical) and patch perspective (e.g., natural potential vegetation units, and land use forms) significantly improved the comprehensive riparian vegetation patterns, because these two perspectives underpin different processes shaping the vegetation. This study contributed significantly to the knowledge of riparian tall herb fringe communities. Two subassociations are described here for the first time, whereas six others have not been previously reported from Poland. The data summarized in the synoptic table indicated that the species diagnostic for individual plant communities should be revised at the supra-regional scale. Some syntaxonomic issues were also determined. The inclusion of the order Convolvuletalia sepium to the class Epilobietea angustifolii resolved the problem of classifying the community dominated by Eupatorium cannabinum, a species showing two ecological optima: one in riparian tall herb communities and the other in natural gaps of the tree stands and clearings of fertile alder carrs and riparian woodlands. This also resolved the problem of classifying the communities dominated by Galeopsis speciosa and Rubus idaeus, intermediate between riparian tall herb and clearing communities. The results of this study may serve as a reference for management of the vegetation in river valleys and promote their conservation. They may also be essential for any future syntaxonomic revision of riparian tall herb fringe communities at a larger geographical extent.


rivers; riparian vegetation; Senecionion fluviatilis; Archangelicion litoralis; environmental conditions; ordination; alien plants; level of invasion

Full Text:



Neiman RJ, Decamps H, McClain ME. Riparia: ecology, conservation, and management of streamside communities. Burlington: Elsevier Academic Press; 2005.

Spink A, Sparks RE, van Oorschot M, Verhoeven JTA. Nutrient dynamics of large river floodplains. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management. 1998;14:203–216. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1646(199803/04)14:2<203::AID-RRR498>3.0.CO;2-7

Thorp JH, Thoms MC, Delong MD. The riverine ecosystem synthesis: biocomplexity in river networks across space and time. River Res Appl. 2006;22:123–147. https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.901

Vannote RL, Minshall GW, Cummins KW, Sedell JR, Cushing CE. The river continuum concept. Can J Fish Aquat Sci. 1980;37:130–137. https://doi.org/10.1139/f80-017

Tabacchi E, Planty-Tabacchi AM, Salinas MJ, Décamps H. Landscape structure and diversity in riparian plant communities: a longitudinal comparative study. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management. 1996;12:367–390. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1646(199607)12:4/5<367::AID-RRR424>3.0.CO;2-X

Montgomery DR. Process domains and the river continuum. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 1999;35(2):397–410. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.1999.tb03598.x

Junk JW, Bayley PB, Sparks RE. The flood pulse concept in river-floodplain systems. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 1989;106:110–127.

Poff NL, Allan JD, Bain MB, Karr JR, Prestegaard KL, Richter BD, et al. The natural flow regime. A paradigm for river conservation and restoration. BioScience. 1997;47:769–784. https://doi.org/10.2307/1313099

Wassen MJ, Peeters WHM, Venterink HO. Patterns in vegetation, hydrology, and nutrient availability in an undisturbed river floodplain in Poland. Plant Ecol. 2002;165:27–43. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021493327180

Yang J, Dilts TE, Condon LA, Turner PL, Weisberg PJ. Longitudinal- and transverse-scale environmental influences on riparian vegetation across multiple levels of ecological organization. Landsc Ecol. 2011;26:381–395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-010-9565-z

Tabacchi E, Correll DL, Hauer R, Pinay G, Planty-Tabacchi AM, Wissmar RC. Development, maintenance and role of riparian vegetation in the river landscape. Freshw Biol. 1998;40:497–516. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.1998.00381.x

Tockner K, Malard F, Ward JV. An extension of the flood pulse concept. Hydrol Process. 2000;14:2861–2883. https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1085(200011/12)14:16/17<2861::AID-HYP124>3.0.CO;2-F

Wu J, Loucks OL. From balance of nature to hierarchical patch dynamics: a paradigm shift in ecology. Q Rev Biol. 1995;70(4):439–466. https://doi.org/10.1086/419172

Ward JV, Tockner K, Schiemer F. Biodiversity of floodplain river ecosystems: ecotones and connectivity. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management. 1999;15:125–139. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1646(199901/06)15:1/3<125::AID-RRR523>3.0.CO;2-E

Burkart M. River corridor plants (Stromtalpflanzen) in Central European lowland: a review of a poorly understood plant distribution pattern. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 2001;10:449–468. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1466-822x.2001.00270.x

Nobis A, Skórka P. River corridor plants revised: what drives their unique distribution patterns? Plant Biosyst. 2016;150(2):244–253. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2014.972999

van Looy K, Honnay O, Bossuyt B, Hermy M. The effect of river embankment and forest fragmentation on the plant species richness and composition of floodplain forests in the Meuse valley, Belgium. Belg J Bot. 2003;136:97–108.

Leyer I. Predicting plant species’ responses to river regulation. The role of water level fluctuations. J Appl Ecol. 2005;42:239–250. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01009.x

Dybkjær JB, Baattrup-Pedersen A, Kronvang B, Thodsen H. Diversity and distribution of riparian plant communities in relation to stream size and eutrophication. J Environ Qual. 2012;41:348–354. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2010.0422

Szoszkiewicz K. Vegetation as an indicator of trophic status of running waters based on rivers of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Roczniki AR w Poznaniu, Rozprawy Naukowe. 2004;349:3–116.

Giller S. River restoration: seeking ecological standards. Editor’s introduction. J Appl Ecol. 2005;42:201–207. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01020.x

Härdtle W, Redecker B, Assmann T, Meyer H. Vegetation responses to environmental conditions in floodplain grasslands: prerequisites for preserving plant species diversity. Basic Appl Ecol. 2006;7:280–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2005.09.003

Matthews ER, Peet RK, Weakley AS. Classification and description of alluvial plant communities of the Piedemont region, North Carolina, USA. Appl Veg Sci. 2011;14:485–505. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2011.01150.x

Ellenberg H. Vegetation ecology of Central Europe. 4th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2009.

Kucharczyk M. Distribution atlas of vascular plants in the middle Vistula River Valley. Lublin: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Press; 2001.

Turner MG, Gergel SE, Dixon MD, Miller JR. Distribution and abundance of trees in floodplain forests of the Winsconsin River: environmental influences at different scales. J Veg Sci. 2004;15:729–738. https://doi.org/10.1658/1100-9233(2004)015[0729:DAAOTI]2.0.CO;2

Hérault B, Honnay O. The relative importance of local, regional and historical factors determining the distribution of plants in fragmented riverine forests: an emergent group approach. J Biogeogr. 2005;32:2069–2081. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01351.x

Lyon J, Gross NM. Patterns of plant diversity and plant-environmental relationships across three riparian corridors. For Ecol Manage. 2005;204:267–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.09.019

Douda J. The role of landscape configuration in plant composition of floodplain forests across different physiographic areas. J Veg Sci. 2010;21:1110–1124. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2010.01213.x

Goebel PC, Palik BJ, Pregitzer KS. Structure and composition of riparian forests in an old-growth northern hardwood-hemlock watershed. For Ecol Manage. 2012;280:52–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.05.037

Pielech R. Formalised classification and environmental controls of riparian forest communities in the Sudetes (SW Poland). Tuexenia. 2015;35:155–176. https://doi.org/10.14471/2015.35.003

Pielech R, Anioł-Kwiatkowska J, Szczęśniak E. Landscape-scale factors driving plant species composition in mountain streamside and spring riparian forests. For Ecol Manage. 2015;347:217–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.03.038

Dwire KA, Kauffman JB, Baham JE. Plant species distribution in relation to water-table depth and soil redox potential in montane riparian meadows. Wetlands. 2006;26(1):131–146. https://doi.org/10.1672/0277-5212(2006)26[131:PSDIRT]2.0.CO;2

Ludewig K, Korell L, Löffler F, Scholz M, Mosner E, Jensen K. Vegetation patterns of floodplain meadows along the climatic gradient at the Middle Elbe River. Flora. 2014;209:446–455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2014.04.006

Kopecký K. Společenstva řádu Convolvuletalia sepium a svazu Convolvulion sepium v Československu. Preslia. 1985;57:235–246.

Brzeg A. Przegląd systematyczny zbiorowisk okrajkowych dotąd stwierdzonych i mogących występować w Polsce. Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica. 1989;34(3–4):385–423.

Matuszkiewicz W. Przewodnik do oznaczania zbiorowisk roślinnych Polski. Warszawa: WN PWN; 2002. (Vademecum Geobotanicum; vol 3).

Rodwell JS, Dring JC, Averis ABG, Proctor MCF, Malloch AJC, Schaminée JHJ, et al. Review of coverage of the National Vegetation Classification. Peterborough: JNCC; 2000. (Joint Nature Conservation Council Report; vol 302).

Mróz W. Ziołorośla górskie (Adenostylion alliariae) i ziołorośla nadrzeczne (Convolvuletalia sepium). In: Herbich J, editor. Murawy, łąki, ziołorośla, wrzosowiska, zarośla. Poradniki ochrony siedlisk i gatunków Natura 2000 – podręcznik metodyczny; vol. 3. Warszawa: Ministerstwo Środowiska; 2004. p. 171–184.

Lonsdale WM. Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invisibility. Ecology. 1999;80:1522–1536. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1999)080[1522:GPOPIA]2.0.CO;2

Richardson DM, Pyšek P. Plant invasions: merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invisibility. Prog Phys Geogr. 2006;30(3):409–431. https://doi.org/10.1191/0309133306pp490pr

Tokarska-Guzik B. Habitat preferences of some alien plants (kenophytes) occurring in Poland. In: Zając A, Zając M, Zemanek B, editors. Phytogeographical problems of synanthropic plants. Cracow: Jagiellonian University; 2003. p. 75–83.

Chytrý M, Pyšek P, Tichý L, Knollová I, Danihelka J. Invasions by alien plants in the Czech Republic: a quantitative assessment across habitats. Preslia. 2005;77:339–354.

Botta-Dukát Z. Invasion of alien species to Hungarian (semi-)natural habitats. Acta Bot Hung. 2008;50(suppl):219–227. https://doi.org/10.1556/ABot.50.2008.Suppl.11

Stępień E. Kenophytes in the Cedynia Landscape Park. In: Holeksa J, Babczyńska-Sendek B, Wika S, editors. The role of geobotany in biodiversity conservation. Katowice: University of Silesia; 2009. p. 309–317.

Sîrbu C, Oprea A, Samuil C, Tănase C. Neophyte invasion in Moldavia (eastern Romania) in different habitat types. Folia Geobot. 2012;47:215–229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12224-011-9112-y

Myśliwy M. Habitat preferences of some neophytes, with a reference to habitat disturbances. Pol J Ecol. 2014;63:509–524. https://doi.org/10.3161/104.062.0311

Dajdok Z, Anioł-Kwiatkowska J. Wstępne wyniki badań nad ekspansją niecierpka gruczołowatego (Impatiens glandulifera Royle) w Dolinie Odry. Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią, Seria B – Botanika. 1998;47:195–204.

Zaliberová M, Jarolímek I. Distribution of the plant communities of the order Convolvuletalia sepium in Slovakia. In: Zając A, Zając M, Zemanek B, editors. Phytogeographical problems of synanthropic plants. Cracow: Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University; 2003. p. 283–291.

Kompała-Bąba A, Błońska A. Plant communities with Helianthus tuberosus L. in the towns of the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (southern Poland). Biodivers Res Conserv. 2008;11–12:57–64.

Śliwiński M. Występowanie Reynoutria japonica Houtt., Reynoutria sachalinensis (F. Schmidt) Nakai i Impatiens glandulifera Royle wzdłuż strumieni Gór Sowich w okolicach Bielawy. Acta Botanica Silesiaca. 2009;4:91–106.

Medvecká J, Jarolímek I, Zaliberová M. Ruderal vegetation of the Horná Orava Region 2. Galio-Urticetea, Epilobietea angustifolii. Thaiszia. 2010;20:17–52.

Chmura D, Tokarska-Guzik B, Nowak T, Woźniak G, Bzdęga K, Koszela K, et al. The influence of invasive Fallopia taxa on resident plant species in two river valleys (southern Poland). Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2015;84(1):23–33. https://doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2015.008

Pattison Z, Minderman J, Boon PJ, Willby N. Twenty years of change in riverside vegetation: what role have invasive plants played? Appl Veg Sci. 2017;20(3):422–434. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12297

Moor M. Pflanzengesellschaften schweizerischer Flußauen. Mitteilungen Schweizerische Anstalt für das Forstliche Versuchswesen. 158;34(4):221–360.

Kopecký K. Die flussbegleitende Neophytengesellschaft Impatienti-Solidaginetum in Mittelmähren. Preslia. 1967;39(2):15l-166.

Hilbig W, Heinrich W, Niemann E. Übersicht über die Pflanzengesellschaften des südlischen Teiles der DDR. 4. Die nitrophilen Saumgesellschaften. Hercynia NF Leipzig. 1972;9:229–270.

Anioł-Kwiatkowska J. Flora i zbiorowiska synantropijne Legnicy, Lubina i Polkowic. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersyteckie; 1974. (Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis, Prace Botaniczne; vol 19).

Görs S. Nitrophile Saumgesellschaften im Gebiet des Taubergiessen. In: Landesstelle für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege Baden-Württemberg, editors. Das Taubergießengebiet – eine Rheinauenlandschaft. Ludwigsburg: Landesstelle für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege Baden-Württemberg; 1975. p. 325–354. (Natur- und Landschaftsschutzgebiete Baden-Württembergs; vol 7).

Fijałkowski D. Synantropy roślinne Lubelszczyzny. Warszawa: PWN; 1978.

Brzeg A, Wojterska M. Zespoły roślinne Wielkopolski, ich stan poznania i zagrożenie. In: Wojterska M, editor. Szata roślinna Wielkopolski i Pojezierza Południowopomorskiego. Przewodnik sesji terenowych 52. Zjazdu PTB; 2001 Sep 24–28; Poznań, Poland. Poznań: Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe; 2001. p. 39–110.

Koska I. Klasse: Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea Klika in Klika & V. Novák 1941 – Röhrichte, Großseggenriede und Feuchtstaudenfluren nährstoffreicher Standorte. In: Berg C, Dengler J, Abdank A, Isermann M, editors. Die Pflanzengesellschaften Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns und ihre Gefährdung – Textband. Herausgegeben vom Landesamt für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Geologie Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Jena: Weissdorn-Verlag; 2004. p. 196–224.

Siedentopf YM. Vegetationsökologie von Stromtalpflanzengesellschaften (Senecion fliviatilis) an der Elbe. Technischen Universität Carolo-Wilhelmina [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2018 Jan 20]. Available from: https://publikationsserver.tu-braunschweig.de/receive/dbbs_mods_00001776

Tüxen R. Der Pflanzensozologische Garten in Hannover und seine bisherige Entwicklung. Jahresber Naturhist Ges Hannover. 1947;94–98:113–288.

Tüxen R. Grundriß einer Systematik der nitrophilen Unkratgesellschaften in der Eurosibirischen Region Europas. Mitt Florist-Soziol Arbeitsgem NF. 1950;2:94–175.

Oberdorfer E, Görs S, Korneck D, Lohmeyer W, Müller T, Philippi G, et al. Systematische Übersicht der westdeutschen Phanerogamen- und Gefäßkryptogamen-Gesellschaften. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. 1967;2:7–62.

Pott R. Die Pflanzengesellschaften Deutschlands. Stuttgart: Verlag Eugen Ulmer; 1992.

Ratyńska H, Wojterska M, Brzeg A. Multimedialna encyklopedia zbiorowisk roślinnych Polski [CD-ROM]. Warszawa: Narodowy Fundusz Ochrony Środowiska i Gospodarki Wodnej w Warszawie; 2010. CD 1–2.

Mucina L. Galio-Urticetea. In: Mucina L, Grabherr G, Ellmauer T, editors. Die Pflanzengesellschaften Österreichs. I. Anthropogene Vegetation. Jena: Fisher; 1993. p. 203–251.

Mucina L, Bültmann H, Dierßen K, Theurillat JP, Raus T, Čarni A, et al. Vegetation of Europe: hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities. Appl Veg Sci. 2016;19(1 suppl):3–264. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12257

Müller T. Klasse: Artemisietea vulgaris Lohm., Prsg. et Tx. in Tx. 50. In: Oberdorfer E, editor. Süddeutsche Pflanzengesellschaften, vol. 3. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag; 1983. p. 135–177.

Kuzyarin AT. The syntaxonomy of ruderal vegetation of flood plain ecosystems in the Western Bug River basin. Proceedings of the State Natural History Museum (Lviv). 2005;21:29–52.

Dengler J, Koska I, Timmermann T, Berg C, Clausnitzer U, Isermann M, et al. New descriptions and typifications of syntaxa within the project “Plant communities of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and their vulnerability” Part II. Feddes Repert. 2004;115(3–4):343–392. https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.200411043

van’t Veer R, Schaminée JHJ, Weeda EJ. Convolvulo-Filipenduletea. In: Stortelder AHF, Schaminée JHJ, Hommel PWFM, editors. De Vegetatie von Nederland. Deel 5. Plantengemeenschappen van ruigten, struwelen en bossen. Upsala: Opulus; 1999. p. 13–40.

Kępczyński K, Rutkowski L. Zbiorowiska wodne, szuwarowe i zaroślowe w dolinie Wisły na odcinku Nebrowo Wielkie-Jarzębina. Studia Societatis Scientiarum Torunensis Sectio D (Botanica). 1981;11(3):3–35.

Borysiak J, Wiszniewska K. Zbiorowiska z Convolvulion sepium Tx. (1947) 1950 na aluwiach Warty między Santokiem a Świerkocinem (Kotlina Gorzowska). Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią seria B – Botanika. 1990;40:153–163.

Rutkowski L, Kaźmierczak E. Zbiorowiska okrajkowe zagłębień śródpolnych w okolicach Chełmży na Pojezierzu Chełmińskim. Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici, Biologia, Nauki Matematyczno-Przyrodnicze. 1993;89:153–162.

Borysiak J. Struktura aluwialnej roślinności lądowej środkowego i dolnego biegu Warty. Poznań: WN UAM; 1994. (Seria Biologia; vol 52).

Ratyńska H. Roślinność poznańskiego przełomu Warty i jej antropogeniczne przemiany. Bydgoszcz: Wydawnictwo Akademii Bydgoskiej im. K. Wielkiego; 2001.

Ejankowski W. Ciepłolubne i nitrofilne zbiorowiska okrajkowe w Górznieńsko-Lidzbarskim Parku Krajobrazowym. Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody. 2005;24:3–29.

Bosiacka B. Roślinność nitrofilnych okrajków wokół śródpolnych oczek wodnych w północno-zachodniej Polsce. Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią seria B – Botanika. 2008;57:7–26.

Zgrabczyńska M, Brzeg A. Występowanie w Wielkopolsce oraz charakterystyka zespołu mlecza błotnego i arcydzięgla nadbrzeżnego Sonchus palustris-Archangelica litoralis R. Tx. 1937. Badania Fizjograficzne seria B – Botanika. 2010;59:97–112.

Szafer W, Zarzycki K. Szata roślinna Polski, vol. 1. 3rd ed. Warszawa: PWN; 1977.

Brzeg A, Wojterska M. Przegląd systematyczny zbiorowisk roślinnych Wielkopolski wraz z oceną stopnia ich zagrożenia. Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią seria B – Botanika. 1996;45:7–40.

Matuszkiewicz JM. Geobotanical regionalization of Poland [Internet]. Warszawa: IGiPZ PAN. 2008 [cited 2017 Oct 21]. Available from: https://www.igipz.pan.pl/Regiony-geobotaniczne-zgik.html

Kondracki J. Geografia regionalna Polski. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN; 2000.

Prusinkiewicz Z, Bednarek R. Gleby. In: Starkel L, editor. Geografia Polski. Środowisko przyrodnicze. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN; 1999. p. 373–396.

Borówka RK. Środowisko geograficzne. In: Borówka RK, Friedrich S, Heese T, Jasnowska J, Kochanowska R, Opęchowski M, et al, editors. Przyroda Pomorza Zachodniego. Szczecin: Oficyna In Plus; 2002. p. 6–105.

Koźmiński C, Michalska B, editors. Atlas of climatic risk to crop cultivation in Poland. Szczecin: Akademia Rolnicza w Szczecinie, Uniwersytet Szczeciński; 2001.

Ewert A. Zagadnienie kontynentalizmu termicznego klimatu Polski i Europy na tle kontynentalizmu kuli ziemskiej. Prace i Studia Instytutu Geograficznego Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Klimatologia. 1973;6:9–17.

Kożuchowski K, Wilbig J. Kontynentalizm pluwialny w Polsce: zróżnicowanie geograficzne i zmiany wieloletnie. Acta Geographica Lodziensia. 1988;55:3–102.

Dynowska I, Pociask-Karteczka J. Obieg wody. In: Starkel L, editor. Geografia Polski. Środowisko przyrodnicze. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN; 1999. p. 343–373.

Gutry-Korycka M. Geneza i ewolucja den dolin rzecznych i sieci rzecznej. In: Richling A, Ostaszewska K, editors. Geografia fizyczna Polski. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN; 2006. p. 151–154.

Bajkiewicz-Grabowska E, Mikulski Z. Hydrologia ogólna. 4th ed. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN; 2010.

Braun-Blanquet J. Pflanzensoziologie. Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde. Berlin: Springer; 1928. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-02056-2

Dzwonko Z. Przewodnik do badań fitosocjologicznych. Poznań: Sorus; 2007. (Vademecum Geobotanicum; vol 6).

Hennekens SM, Schaminée JHJ. TURBOVEG, a comprehensive data base management system for vegetation data. J Veg Sci. 2001;12:589–591. https://doi.org/10.2307/3237010

Kącki Z, Śliwiński M. The Polish Vegetation Database: structure, resources and development. Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2012;81(2):75–79. https://doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2012.014

Weber HE, Moravec J, Theurillat JP. International code of phytosociological nomenclature. 3rd ed. J Veg Sci. 2000;11:739–768. https://doi.org/10.2307/3236580

Chytrý M, editor. Vegetation of the Czech Republic. 1. Grassland and heathland vegetation. Praha: Academia; 2007.

Chytrý M, editor. Vegetation of the Czech Republic. 2. Ruderal, weed, rock and scree vegetation. Praha: Academia; 2009.

Chytrý M, editor. Vegetation of the Czech Republic. 3. Aquatic and wetland vegetation. Praha: Academia; 2011.

Chytrý M, editor. Vegetation of the Czech Republic. 4. Forest and scrub vegetation. Praha: Academia; 2013.

Mirek Z, Piękoś-Mirkowa H, Zając A, Zając M, editors. Flowering plants and pteridophytes of Poland – a checklist. Cracow: W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences; 2002. (Biodiversity of Poland; vol 1).

Szweykowski J. An annotated checklist of Polish liverworts and hornworts. Cracow: W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences; 2006.

Ochyra R, Żarnowiec J, Bednarek-Ochyra H. Census catalogue of Polish mosses. Cracow: W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences; 2003. (Biodiversity of Poland; vol 3).

Tokarska-Guzik B, Dajdok Z, Zając M, Zając A, Urbisz A, Danielewicz W, et al. Rośliny obcego pochodzenia w Polsce ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem gatunków inwazyjnych. Warszawa: Generalna Dyrekcja Ochrony Środowiska; 2012.

Jusik S, Szoszkiewicz K, Kupiec JM, Lewin I, Samecka-Cymerman A. Development of comprehensive river typology based on macrophytes in the mountain-lowland gradient of different Central European ecoregions. Hydrobiologia. 2015;745:241–262. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-014-2111-2

Matuszkiewicz JM. Potential natural vegetation of Poland [Internet]. Warszawa: IGiPZ PAN; 2008 [cited 2017 Oct 21]. Available from: https://www.igipz.pan.pl/Roslinnosc-potencjalna-zgik.html

Bednarek R, Dziadowiec H, Pokojska U, Prusinkiewicz Z. Badania ekologiczno-gleboznawcze. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN; 2011.

PSSS. Particle size distribution and textural classes of soils and mineral materials – classification of Polish Society of Soil Science 2008. Roczniki Gleboznawcze. 2009;60(2):5–16.

Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny. Analiza chemiczno-rolnicza gleby. Oznaczanie zawartości przyswajalnego magnezu w glebach mineralnych PN-R-04020:1994. Warszawa: Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny; 1994.

Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny. Analiza chemiczno-rolnicza gleby. Oznaczanie zawartości przyswajalnego potasu w glebach mineralnych PN-R-04022:1996. Warszawa: Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny; 1996.

Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny. Analiza chemiczno-rolnicza gleby. Oznaczanie zawartości przyswajalnego fosforu w glebach mineralnych PN-R-04023:1996. Warszawa: Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny; 1996.

Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny. Analiza chemiczno-rolnicza gleby. Oznaczanie zawartości przyswajalnego fosforu, potasu, magnezu i manganu w glebach organicznych PN-R-04024:1997. Warszawa: Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny; 1997.

Kącki Z, Czarniecka M, Swacha G. Statistical determination of diagnostic, constant and dominant species of the higher vegetation units of Poland. Łódź: Polish Botanical Society; 2013. (Monographiae Botanicae; vol 103). https://doi.org/10.5586/mb.2013.001

Jasnowski M. Budowa i roślinność torfowisk Pomorza Szczecińskiego. Szczecin: Szczecińskie Towarzystwo Naukowe; 1962. (Szczecińskie Towarzystwo Naukowe, Wydział Nauk Przyrodniczo-Rolniczych; vol 10).

Piotrowska H. Nadmorskie zespoły solniskowe w Polsce i problemy ich ochrony. Ochrona Przyrody. 1974;39:7–63.

Święs F. Roślinność ruderalna Dęblina. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Sectio C. 1986;41(7):89–100.

Święs F. Roślinność synantropijna Tarnowa. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Sectio C. 1989;44(15):236–270.

Kępczyński K, Rutkowski L. Interesujące zbiorowiska roślinne w Dolinie Dolnej Wisły na odcinku Nowe–Gniew. Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici, Biologia, Nauki Matematyczno-Przyrodnicze. 1992;79:187–204.

Jutrzenka-Trzebiatowski A. Dotychczasowe wyniki badań nad zbiorowiskami ziołoroślowymi Żuław Wiślanych. Acta Botanica Cassubica. 2005;5:7–37.

Dajdok Z, Anioł-Kwiatkowska J, Kącki Z. Impatiens glandulifera Royle in the floodplain vegetation of the Odra River (West Poland). In: Starfinger U, Edwards K, Kowarik I, Williamson M, editors. Plant invasions: ecological mechanisms and human responses. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers; 1998. p. 161–168.

Dajdok Z, Anioł-Kwiatkowska J, Kącki Z. Distribution of Impatiens glandulifera along the Odra river. In: Zając A, Zając M, Zemanek B, editors. Phytogeographical problems of synantropic plants. Cracow: Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University; 2003. p. 137–146.

Borysiak J. Plant cover of the Lower Oder River Valley Landscape Park. Poznań: UAM; 2004. (Biologia; vol 70).

Kordus-Walankiewicz B. Zbiorowiska roślinne jezior przemęckich. Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią seria B – Botanika. 1977;30:111–132.

Stachnowicz W, Nagengast B. Roślinność strefy przybrzeżnej mezotroficznego Jeziora Powidzkiego w warunkach wzrastającej presji osadniczej i rekreacyjnej: stan aktualny oraz ocena wartości dla ochrony przyrody. Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią seria B – Botanika. 2010;59:7–41.

Kaźmierczak E. The vegetation of kettle-holes in central Poland. Uppsala: Svenska Växtgeografiska Sällskapet; 1997. (Acta Phytogeographica Suecica; vol 83).

Faliński JB, Falińska K. Szata roślinna rezerwatu krajobrazowego “Dolina Rzeki Wałszy” (Wzniesienia Górowskie). Materiały Zakładu Fitosocjologii Stosowanej UW. 1965;7:3–83.

Załuski T. Zbiorowiska roślinne projektowanego rezerwatu “Olszyny Bobrowe”. Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici, Biologia, Nauki Matematyczno-Przyrodnicze. 1992;79:205–234.

Macicka-Pawlik T, Wilczyńska W. Szata roślinna projektowanego rezerwatu “Uroczysko-Wrzosy” koło Wołowa (studium florystyczno-fitosocjologiczne). Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis, Prace Botaniczne. 1995;64:121–195.

Antkowiak W, Stefanek-Pańczuk W. Flora i roślinność planowanego rezerwatu “Papiernia” w zachodniej Wielkopolsce. Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią seria B – Botanika. 2000;49:113–140.

Fijałkowski D. Szata roślinna Parku Krajobrazowego “Lasy Janowskie”. Lublin: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej; 1997.

Celiński F, Tobolski M. Stanowiska rzadszych roślin w okolicy Stepnicy nad Zalewem Szczecińskim. Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią. 1961;8:237–242.

Slavik B. Verbreitung von Cucubalus baccifer in der Tschechoslowakei. Preslia. 1980;52(2):127–154.

Brzeg A. Zbiorowiska okrajkowe okolic Rakowa i Ramieszowa na północ od Wrocławia. Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią seria B – Botanika. 1983;34:145–163.

Rutkowski L. Zbiorowiska okrajkowe w południowo-wschodniej części Puszczy Boreckiej. Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici, Biologia, Nauki Matematyczno-Przyrodnicze. 1992;79:171–185.

Szczęśniak E. Szata roślinna północno-zachodniej części Pogórza Wałbrzyskiego. III. Zbiorowiska nieleśne. Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis, Prace Botaniczne. 1998;74:9–37.

Torbé M. Występowanie niecierpka gruczołowatego (Impatiens glandulifera Royle Walpers) i niecierpka pomarańczowego (Impatiens capensis Meerb.) na południowo-zachodnim brzegu Zalewu Szczecińskiego. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis, Agricultura. 2000;85:193–202.

Wojterska M. Struktura krajobrazów roślinnych Pojezierza Międzychodzko-Sierakowskiego. Poznań: Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe; 2003.

Tüxen R. Die Pflanzengesellschaften Nordwestdeutschlands. Mitteilungen der Floristisch-soziologischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft in Niedersachsen. 1937;3:1–170.

Lohmeyer W. Über die Herkunft Einiger Nitrophiler Unkräuter Mitteleuropas. Plant Ecol. 1953;5–6(1):63–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00299554

Lohmeyer W. Über flussbegleitende nitrophile Hochstaudenfluren am Mittel- und Niderrhein. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. 1975;8:79–98.

Passarge H. Pflanzengesellschaften zwischen Trebel, Grenz-Bach und Peene (O-Mecklenburg). Berlin: Akademie Verlag; 1959. (Feddes Repertorium Sperierum Novarum Regi Vegetabilis Beiheft; vol 135).

Passarge H. Über einige interessante Stromtalgesellschaften der Elbe unterhalb von Magdeburg. Abhandlungen und Berichte für Naturkunde und Vorgeschichte/Museum für Kulturgeschichte Magdeburg. 1965;11:83–93.

Passarge H. Über Saumgesellschaften im nordostdeutschen Flachland. Feddes Repert. 1967;74:145–158. https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.19670740303

Passarge H. Über Schleier- und Staudengesellschaften mitteleuropäischer Ufersäume. Folia Geobotanica and Phytotaxonomica. 1976;11:137–162. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02854756

Kopecký K. Zur Syntaxonomie der natürlichen nitrophilen Saumgesellschaften in der Tschechoslowakei und zur Gliederung der Klasse Galio-Urticetea. Folia Geobotanica and Phytotaxonomica. 1969;4:235–259. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02854746

Görs S, Müller T. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der nitrophilen Saumgesellschaften Südwestdeutschlands. Mitteilungen der Floristisch-soziologischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft. 1969;14:153–168.

Dierschke H, Jackel G, Brandes D. Das Calystegio-Archangelicetum litoralis Pass. (1957) 1959 in Nordwest-Deutschland. Mitteilungen der Floristisch-soziologischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft. 1977;19–20:115–124.

Zahlheimer WA. Vegetationsstudien in den Donauauen zwischen Regensburg und Straubing als Grundlage für den Naturschutz. Hoppea. 1979;38:3–398.

Jackowiak B, Grabherr G. Zur Ausbreitung von Angelica archangelica L. an der Donau in Wien. Verh Zool Bot Ges Österr. 1990;127:113–122.

Géhu JM, Géhu-Franck J. Groupements arbustifs el mégaphorbiaies du Haut Jura français. Quelques aspects particuliers. Lazaroa. 1987;7:25–35.

Brandes D. Ruderal and skirt communities of Oker Valley (Lower Saxony). Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften. 1992;4(1):143–165.

Brandes D, Oppermann FW. Die Uferflora der oberen Weser. Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften. 1994;4(3):575–607.

Dierßen K. Vegetation Nordeuropas. Stuttgart: Eugen Ulmer; 1996.

Jarolímek I, Zaliberowá M. Convolvuletalia sepum. In: Valachovič M, editor. Plant communities of Slovakia. 3. Wetland vegetation. Bratislava: Veda Publisher House; 2001. p. 21–49.

Siedentopf YM, Brandes D. Cucubalus baccifer L. 1753 als Stromtalpflanze ou der mittelerewn Elbe. Brauschweiger Naturkuntliche Schriften. 2001;6(2):485–500.

Láníková D, Kočí M, Sádlo J, Šumberová K, Hájková P, Hájek M, et al. Nitrofilní vytrvalá vegetace vlhkývh a mezických stanovišt’ (Galio-Urticetea). In: Chytrý M, editor. Vegetation of the Czech Republic. 2. Ruderal, weed, rock and scree vegetation. Praha: Academia; 2009. p. 289–378.

de Foucault B. Contribution au prodrome des végétations de France: les Filipendulo ulmariae-Convolvuletea sepium Géhu et Géhu-Franck 1987. Journal de Botanique de la Société Botanique de France. 2011;53:73–137.

van der Maarel E. Transformation of cover-abundance values in phytosociology and its effects on community similarity. Vegetatio. 1979;39:97–114. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00052021

Kovach WL. MVSP – A MultiVariate Statistical Package for Windows. Version 3.2. Users’ manual. Pentraeth: Kovach Computing Services; 2010.

Jongman RHG, ter Braak CJF, van Tongeren OFR, editors. Data analysis in community and landscape ecology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1995. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511525575

Dzwonko Z, Loster S. Vegetation differentiation and secondary succession on a limestone hill in southern Poland. J Veg Sci. 1990;1:615–622. https://doi.org/10.2307/3235567

Stanisz A. Przystępny kurs statystyki z zastosowaniem Statistica PL na przykładach z medycyny. Vol 1. Statystyki podstawowe. Kraków: StatSoft; 2006.

StatSoft. Statistica 10 – data analysis software system [software]. 2010 [cited 2017 Oct 10]. Available from: https://www.statsoft.com/

ter Braak CJF, Šmilauer P. CANOCO reference manual and CanoDraw for Windows user’s guide: software for canonical community ordination (version 4.5). Ithaca, NY: Microcomputer Power; 2002.

Lepš J, Šmilauer P. Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2003. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615146

ter Braak CJF. The analysis of vegetation–environment relationship by canonical correspondence analysis. Vegetatio. 1987;69:69–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00038688

ter Braak CJF. Canonical correspondence analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology. 1986;67:1167–1179. https://doi.org/10.2307/1938672

Ward JV. The four-dimensional nature of lotic ecosystems. Journal of the North American Benthological Society. 1989;8(1):2–8. https://doi.org/10.2307/1467397

Swanson FJ, Gregory SV, Sedell JR, Campbell AG. Land-water interactions: the riparian zone. In: Edmonds RL, editor. Analysis of coniferous forest ecosystems in the Western United States. Stroudsburg, PA: Hutchinson and Ross; 1982. p. 267–291. (US IBP Synthesis Series; vol 14).

Bendix J, Hupp CR. Hydrological and geomorphological impacts on riparian plant communities. Hydrol Process. 2000;14:2977–2990. https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1085(200011/12)14:16/17<2977::AID-HYP130>3.0.CO;2-4

Fischer M, Burkart M, Pasqualetto V, van Kleunen M. Experiment meets biogeography: plants of river corridor distribution are not more stress tolerant but benefit less from more benign conditions elsewhere. J Plant Ecol. 2010;3(3):149–155. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rtq013

Dunn WC, Milne BT, Mantilla R, Gupta VK. Scaling relations between riparian vegetation and stream order in the Whitewater River network, Kansas, USA. Landsc Ecol. 2011;26:983–997. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-011-9622-2

van Coller AL, Rogers KH, Heritage GL. Riparian vegetation–environment relationships: complimentarity of gradients versus patch hierarchy approaches. J Veg Sci. 2000;11:337–350. https://doi.org/10.2307/3236626

Hrivnák R. Effect of ecological factors on the zonation of wetland vegetation. Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2005;74(1):73–81. https://doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2005.011

Bufková I, Prach K. Linking vegetation pattern to hydrology and hydrochemistry in a montane river floodplain, the Šumava National Park, Central Europe. Wetl Ecol Manag. 2006;14:317–327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-005-3817-8

Menges ES, Waller DM. Plant strategies in relation to elevation and light in floodplain herbs. Am Nat. 1983;122(4):454–473. https://doi.org/10.1086/284149

Grime JP. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am Nat. 1977;111(982):1169–1194. https://doi.org/10.1086/283244

Pinay G, Fabre A, Vervier P, Gazelle F. Control of C, N, P distribution in soils of riparian forests. Landsc Ecol. 1992;6(3):121–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00130025

Baldwin DS, Mitchel AM. The effects of drying and re-flooding on the sediment and soil nutrient dynamics of lowland river-floodplain systems: a synthesis. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management. 2000;16:457–467. https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1646(200009/10)16:5<457::AID-RRR597>3.0.CO;2-B

Passarge H. Pflanzengesellschaften des nordostdeutschen Flachlandes I. Pflanzensoziologie. 1964;13:1–324.

Zaharias D. Das Sonchetum palustris (Vlieger et Zinderen Bakker 1942) van Donselaar 1961 im östlichen Niedersachsen. Tuxenia. 1987;7:101–111.

Michálková D, Zaliberová M. Synantropizácia prirodzenej vegetácie na vrchu Rohatín v Strážovských vrchoch. Bulletin Slovenskej Botanickej Spoločnosti. 2006;28:211–222.

Jarolímek I, Šibík J, Hegedüšová K, Janišová M, Kliment J, Kučera P, et al. A list of vegetation units of Slovakia. In: Jarolímek I, Šibík J, editors. Diagnostic, constant and dominant species of the higher vegetation units of Slovakia. Bratislava: Veda; 2008. p. 295–329.

Myśliwy M. Riparian tall herb fringe communities in a small lowland river valley: species-environment interactions. Natura Montenegrina. 2010;9(3):403–415.

Richardson DM, Holmes PM, Esler KJ, Galatowitsch SM, Stromberg JC, Kirkman SP, et al. Riparian vegetation: degradation, alien plant invasions, and restoration prospects. Divers Distrib. 2007;13:126–139. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1366-9516.2006.00314.x

Cushman JH, Gaffney KA. Community-level consequences of invasion: impacts of exotic clonal plants on riparian vegetation. Biol Invasions. 2010;12:2765–2776. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-009-9682-2

Campos JA, Biurrun I, García-Mijangos I, Loidi J, Herrera M. Assessing the level of plant invasion: a multi-scale approach based on vegetation plots. Plant Biosyst. 2013;147(4):1148–1162. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2013.861538

Pyšek P, Prach K. How important are rivers for supporting plant invasions? In: de Waal LC, Child LE, Wade PM, Brock JH, editors. Ecology and management of invasive riverside plants. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 1994. p. 19–26.

Tokarska-Guzik B. The establishment and spread of alien plant species (kenophytes) in the flora of Poland. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego; 2005.

Szymura M, Szymura TH. Historical contingency and spatial processes rather than ecological niche differentiation explain the distribution of invasive goldenrods (Solidago and Euthamia). Plant Ecol. 2016;217(5):565–582. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-016-0601-1

Liendo D, García-Mijangos I, Campos JA, López-Munian U, Biurrun I. Drives of plant invasion at broad and fine scale in short temperate streams. River Res Appl. 2016;32:1730–1739. https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.3024

Planty-Tabacchi AM, Tabacchi E, Naiman RJ, Deferrai C, Décamps H. Invasibility of species-rich communities in riparian zones. Conserv Biol. 1996;10(2):598–607. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10020598.x

Truscott AM, Palmer SCF, Soulsby C, Hulme PE. Assessing the vulnerability of riparian vegetation to invasion by Mimulus guttatus: relative importance of biotic and abiotic variables in determining species occurrence and abundance. Divers Distrib. 2008;14:412–421. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2007.00449.x

Catford JA, Downes BJ, Gippel CJ, Vesk PA. Flow regulation reduces native plant cover and facilitates exotic invasion in riparian wetlands. J Appl Ecol. 2011;48:432–442. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01945.x

Greet J, Cousens RD, Webb JA. More exotic and fewer native plant species: riverine vegetation patterns associated with altered seasonal flow patterns. River Res Appl. 2013;29:686–706. https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.2571

Vilà M, Ibáñez I. Plant invasions in the landscape. Landsc Ecol. 2011;26:461–472. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-011-9585-3

Lambdon PW, Pyšek P, Basnou C, Hejda M, Arianoutsou M, Essl F, et al. Alien flora of Europe: species diversity, temporal trends, geographical patterns and research needs. Preslia. 2008;80(2):101–149.

Liendo D, Biurrun I, Campos JA, Herrera M, Loidi J, García-Mijangos I. Invasion patterns in riparian habitats: the role of anthropogenic pressure in temperate streams. Plant Biosyst. 2013;149:289–297. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2013.822434

Myśliwy M. Plant invasions across different habitat types at floristic survey. Appl Ecol Environ Res. 2014;12(1):193–207. https://doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1201_193207

Vilà M, Espinar JL, Hejda M, Hulme PE, Jarošík V, Maron JL, et al. Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. Ecol Lett. 2011;14:702–708. https://doi.org./10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01628.x

Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Hulme PE, Pergl J, Hejda M, Schaffner U, et al. A global assessment of invasive plant impacts on resident species, communities and ecosystems: the interaction of impact measures, invading species’ traits and environment. Glob Chang Biol. 2012;18(5):1725–1737. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02636.x

Hejda M, Pyšek P, Jarošík V. Impact of invasive plants on the species richness, diversity and composition of invaded communities. J Ecol. 2009;97(3):393–403. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01480.x

Hejda M, Pyšek P. What is the impact of Impatiens glandulifera on species diversity of invaded riparian vegetation? Biol Conserv. 2006;132(2):142–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.03.025

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5586/mb.2019.001

Publication ISSN:
  • 2392-2923 (online)
  • 0077-0655 (print; ceased since 2019)
This is an Open Access publication, which distributes its content under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, provided that the content is properly cited.
The series is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and aims to follow the COPE’s principles.
The series publisher is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association.
The series content is indexed in Similarity Check, the Crossref initiative to prevent scholarly and professional plagiarism.
Polish Botanical Society