Diversity of Basidiomycetes in various ecosystems of the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts.

Janusz Łuszczyński

Abstract


Mycocoenological studies were conducted at 77 permanent research plots established in 14 leading forest communities and in three non-forest communities in the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts. The greatest numbers of Basidiomycetes were recorded in phytocoenoses in the following plant communities: Tilio-Carpinetum (393 species), Querco-Pinetum (292 species) and Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum (268 species). Saprobionts dominated the mycobiota of the forest communities (593 species, that is 57% of the total number of species), including 332 species of pedobionts (32%), 251 species of xylobionts (24%) and 10 species of allobionts (0.9%). Furthermore, 375 species of mycorrhizal fungi (36% of the total number of the recorded species) and 59 species of parasites (6% of the total number of the mycobiota studied) were recorded.

The current species composition of Basidiomycetes in the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts. has been influenced by the location of the area in relation to the adjacent geographical regions, climatic conditions, natural topography, geological structure and plant cover as well as human economy. Abies alba, Acer pseudoplatanus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua ssp. polonica and Picea abies, which encourage the development of mountain fungi, influence the biota of Basidiomycetes in particular. The occurrence of 87 species of the mountain element sensu lato was recorded. Trophic relationships between Basidiomycetes and 34 species of vascular plants as well as 11 genera of mosses were analysed. The most numerous groups of fungi accompany pine trees (114 species), beech trees (105 species), fir trees (102 species) and oak trees (100 species). Despite significant damage, well-preserved and fairly intact forest areas are still found in the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts. They now serve as refugia of Albatrellus confluens, Bankera fuligineoalba, Fomitopsis officinalis, Hericium coralloides, H. flagellum, Pycnoporellus fulgens, Skeletocutis odora and S. stellae. Both natural and anthropogenic factors determine the changes of the mycological profile in the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts. Some of the newly arrived Basidiomycetes have features of expansive species, for instance Clathrus archeri, Mutinus ravenelii and Psilocybe rugosoannulata.


Keywords


macrofungi; mycocoenoses; old-growth forest fungi; expansive, synanthropic and threatened fungi; C. Poland

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