Wild food plants and fungi used by Ukrainians in the western part of the Maramureş region in Romania

Łukasz Łuczaj, Kinga Stawarczyk, Tomasz Kosiek, Marcin Pietras, Anna Kujawa

Abstract


Wild food and fungi use in the countryside has always been an important part of human-nature relationships. Due to social changes in most rural areas of Europe this part of traditional ecological knowledge is shrinking. The aim of our study was to record the use of wild foods and plants among the Ukrainian (Carpatho-Rusyns) minority in the western part of Romanian Maramureş. We carried out 64 interviews in two villages. Voucher specimens were collected and DNA barcoding was used to identify most fungi taxa. We recorded the use of 44 taxa of plants altogether (including 8 taxa used only for herbal teas) and 24 taxa of fungi. On average 7.7 species of plants and 9.7 species of fungi were listed per interview. Edible fungi are thus an important part of local cuisine and they are eagerly gathered by everyone. The use of a few woodland bracket fungi is worth pointing out. No signs of degeneration of this knowledge were observed. Wild fruits are less collected now and wild greens are rarely collected nowadays. This pattern is typical of many places in Central Europe.

Keywords


ethnobotany; ethnomycology; mycophilous; Romania; Ukraine

Full Text:

PDF

References


Pieroni A, Quave CL, editors. Ethnobotany and biocultural diversities in the Balkans: perspectives on sustainable rural development and reconciliation. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.

Horváth I, Scacco A. From the unitary to the pluralistic: fine-tuning minority policy in Romania. In: Bíró AM, Kovács P, editors. Diversity in action: local public management of multi-ethnic communities in Central and Eastern Europe. Budapest: Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative. Open Society Institute; 2001. p. 241–271.

Ram MH. Romania: from laggard to leader? In: Rechel B, editor. Minority rights in Central and Eastern Europe. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group; 2009. p. 180–194.

Eliade M. De la Zalmoxis la Genghis-han. Paris: Payet; 1970.

Borza A, Beldie A. Dicţionar etnobotanic. Bucharest: Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România; 1968.

Butură V. Enciclopedie de etnobotanică românească. Bucharest: Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică; 1979.

Péntek J, Szabó A. Ember és növényvilág: kalotaszeg növényzete és népi növényismerete. Bucharest: Kriterion; 1985.

Papp N, Birkás-Frendl K, Farkas Á, Pieroni A. An ethnobotanical study on home gardens in a Transylvanian Hungarian Csángó village (Romania). Genet Res Crop Evol. 2013;60(4):1423–1432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-012-9930-7

Papp N, Czégényi D, Hegedűs A, Morschhauser T, Quave CL, Cianfaglione K, et al. The uses of Betula pendula Roth among Hungarian Csángós and Székelys in Transylvania, Romania. Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2014;83(2):113–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2014.011

Papp N, Birkás-Frendl K, Bencsik T, Czégényi D. Ethnobotanical surveys in Transylvania: past, present and future. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov. Series II: Forestry – Wood Industry – Agricultural Food Engineering. 2013;4(53):2–6

Kóczián G, Pintér I, Gál M, Szabó I, Szabó L. Etnobotanikai adatok Gyimesvölgyéből. Botanikai Közlemények. 1976;63(1):29–35.

Kołodziejska-Degórska I. Mental herbals – a context-sensitive way of looking at local ethnobotanical knowledge: examples from Bukovina (Romania). Trames. 2012;16(3):287–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/tr.2012.3.04

Kołodziejska-Degórska I. Z czego “uwarić herbatę”? Dzikie rośliny jadane w polskich wsiach na południowej Bukowinie (Rumunia). In: Łuczaj Ł, editor. Conference proceedings “Dzikie rośliny jadalne – zapomniany potencjał przyrody”; 2007 Sep 13; Przemyśl-Bolestraszyce. Bolestraszyce: Arboretum i Zakład Fizjografii w Bolestraszycach; 2008. p. 219–226.

Pieroni A, Quave CL, Giusti ME, Papp N. “We are Italians!”: the hybrid ethnobotany of a Venetian diaspora in eastern Romania. Hum Ecol. 2012;40:435–451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10745-012-9493-4

Pieroni A, Nedelcheva A, Dogan Y. Local knowledge of medicinal plants and wild food plants among Tatars and Romanians in Dobruja (south-east Romania). Genet Res Crop Evol. 2014;1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-014-0185-3

Stryamets N, Elbakidze M, Ceuterick M, Angelstam P, Axelsson R. From economic survival to recreation: contemporary uses of wild food and medicine in rural Sweden, Ukraine and NW Russia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015;11:53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13002-015-0036-0

Łuczaj Ł, Pieroni A, Tardío J, Pardo-de-Santayana M, Sõukand R, Svanberg I, et al. Wild food plant use in 21st century Europe: the disappearance of old traditions and the search for new cuisines involving wild edibles. Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2012;81(4):359–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2012.031

Łuczaj Ł. Archival data on wild food plants used in Poland in 1948. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2008;4(1):4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-4-4

Kalle R, Sõukand R. Historical ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Estonia (1770s–1960s). Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2012;81(4):271–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2012.033

Dénes A, Papp N, Babai D, Czúcz B, Molnár Z. Wild plants used for food by Hungarian ethnic groups living in the Carpathian Basin. Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2012;81(4):381–396. http://dx.doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2012.040

Łuczaj Ł. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia. Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2012;81(4):245–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2012.030

Svanberg I. The use of wild plants as food in pre-industrial Sweden. Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2012;81(4):317–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2012.039

Redžić S. Wild edible plants and their traditional use in the human nutrition in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ecol Food Nutr. 2006;45(3):189–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03670240600648963

Łuczaj Ł, Köhler P, Pirożnikow E, Graniszewska M, Pieroni A, Gervasi T. Wild edible plants of Belarus: from Rostafiński’s questionnaire of 1883 to the present. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9(1):21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-21

Redzić S. Use of wild and semi-wild edible plants in nutrition and survival of people in 1430 days of siege of Sarajevo during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992–1995). Coll Antropol. 2010;34(2):551–570

Łuczaj Ł, ZovkoKončić M, Miličević T, Dolina K, Pandža M. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9(1):2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-2

Łuczaj Ł, Fressel N, Perković S. Wild food plants used in the villages of the Lake Vrana Nature Park (northern Dalmatia, Croatia). Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2013;82(4):275–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2013.036

Dolina K, Łuczaj Ł. Wild food plants used on the Dubrovnik coast (south-eastern Croatia) Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2014;83(3):175–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2014.029

Łuczaj Ł. Changes in the utilization of wild green vegetables in Poland since the 19th century: a comparison of four ethnobotanical surveys. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128(2):395–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.038

Nedelcheva A. An ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Bulgaria. Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7:77–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.10

Redžić S, Ferrier J. The use of wild plants for human nutrition during a war: eastern Bosnia (Western Balkans). In: Pieroni C, Quave CL, editors. Ethnobotany and biocultural diversities in the Balkans. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 149–182.

Łuczaj Ł. Brzozowy sok, “czeremsza” i zielony barszcz – ankieta etnobotaniczna wśród botaników ukraińskich. Etnobiologia Pol. 2012;2:15–22.

Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele provizorii ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor – 2011, at the 2011 census site [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2015 Feb 01]; Available from: http://www.recensamantromania.ro/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Comunicat_DATE_PROVIZORII_RPL_2011.pdf

King C, Melvin N, editors. Nations abroad: diaspora politics and international relations in the former Soviet Union. Boulder, CO: Westview Press; 1998.

Kosiek T. Czy w rumuńskim Maramureşzu mieszkają Huculi? Kilka uwag o kategorii Hucuł i Huculszczyzna w kontekście marmaroskim. In: Stęszewski J, Cząstka-Kłapyta J, editors. Kultura współczesnej Huculszczyzny. Kraków: Oficyna Wydawnicza “Wichry”; 2010. p. 45–62.

Magocsi PR, Pop I. Maramorosh. In: Magocsi PR, Pop I, editors. Encyclopedia of Rusyn history and culture. Toronto: University of Toronto Press Incorporated; 2002. p. 307.

Kosiek T. Ethnicity has many names. On the diverse acts of identification with the example of the Ukrainian minority in the Romanian region of Maramureş. In: Kuligowski W, Papp R, editors. Sterile and isolated? An anthropology today in Hungary and Poland, Poznań: Wydawnictwo TIPI; 2015. p. 111–127.

Kurelyak V. Hutsuly Maramoroshchyny i etnohrafichny problemy. Visnyk L’vivs’koho Universitetu – Seriya Heografichna. 1998;22:41–48.

Kurelyak V. Ukrayinci rumunskoyi Maramoroshchyny. Lviv: Vydavnychyj centr LNU im. Ivana Franka; 2001.

Remeți, Maramureș: de la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 Apr 05]; Available from: https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remeți,_Maramureș

Romanian companies: economic map of Lunca La Tisa (MM) [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 Apr 05]; Available from: http://www.romanian-companies.eu/harta/maramures_lunca_la_tisa.htm

Len’o P. Etnokul’turni procesy v seredovyshchi ukrajinciv Maramoroshchyny. Narodna tvorchist ta etnohrafija. 2010;3:36–46.

American Anthropological Association Code of Ethics [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2015 Jan 10]; Available from: http://www.aaanet.org/issues/policy-advocacy/upload/AAA-Ethics-Code-2009.pdf

International Society of Ethnobiology Code of Ethics (with 2008 additions) [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2015 Jan 10]; Available from: http://ethnobiology.net/code-of-ethics/

Sõukand R, Quave CL, Pieroni A, Pardo-de-Santayana M, Tardío J, Kalle R, et al. Plants used for making recreational tea in Europe: a review based on specific research sites. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9(1):58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-58

The Plant List: a working list of all plant species [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 Jan 10]; Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/

Schocha CL, Seifertb K, Huhndorfc S, Robert V, Spouge JL, Levesque CA, et al. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012;109(16): 6241–6246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1117018109

Begerow D, Nilsson H, Unterseher M, Maier W. Current state and perspectives of fungal DNA barcoding and rapid identification procedures. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;87:99–108. http://dx.doi/10.1007/s00253-010-2585-4

GenBank [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 Mar 27]; Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Łuczaj Ł, Nieroda Z. Collecting and learning to identify edible fungi in southeastern Poland: age and gender differences. Ecol Food Nutr. 2011;50(4):319–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03670244.2011.586314

Šimková K, Polesný Z. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants used in the Czech Republic. J Appl Bot Food Qual. 2015;88:49–67.

Schunko C, Vogl CR. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010;6:17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-17

Łuczaj Ł, Köhler P. Grzyby w ankiecie Józefa Rostafińskiego (1850–1928) ogłoszonej w 1883 r. Etnobiologia Pol. 2014;4:7–54

Pawłowska J, Gajek J. Zbieranie i spożywanie grzybów z rodziny gołąbkowatych Russulaceae, mapa 314, Zbieranie i spożywanie grzyba mleczaj chrząstka Lactarius vellereus. In: Gajek J, editor. Polski atlas etnograficzny. Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk, Instytut Historii Kultury Materialnej; 1981.

Pirożnikow E. Rola pożywienia zbieranego z natury w życiu Polaków deportowanych do ZSRR w okresie drugiej wojny światowej. Etnobiologia Pol. 2014;4:135–172.

Grlić L. Naše samoniklo jestivo bilje. Zagreb: Poljoprivredni Nakladni Zavod; 1956.

Zsigmond G. The meanings and functions of mushrooms as food in Hungarian folk tradition. Acta Ethnographica Hungarica. 2010;55:115–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/AEthn.55.2010.1.8

Zerova MY, Rozhenko GL Atlas s’edobnykh i yadovitykh gribov. Kiev: ??; 1988

de Crop E, Nuytinck J, van de Putte K, Lecomte M, Eberhardt U, Verbeken A. Lactifluus piperatus (Russulales, Basidiomycota) and allied species in Western Europe and a preliminary overview of the group worldwide. Mycol Prog. 2014;13(3):493–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11557-013-0931-5

Rivera D, Obón C, Inocencio C, Heinrich M, Verde A, Fajardo J, et al. Gathered food plants in the mountains of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain): ethnobotany and multivariate analysis. Econ Bot. 2007;61(3):269–289.

Rodríguez JF, Sidera DB, Verde López A. El Género “Lactarius” en la provincia de Albacete. Sabuco: revista de estudios albacetenses. 2003;(4):5–33.