The negative impact of intentionally introduced Quercus rubra L. on a forest community

Beata Woziwoda, Dominik Kopeć, Janusz Witkowski

Abstract


Some alien woody species used in commercial forestry become invasive and, as invaders, cause major problems in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the deliberate introduction of aliens can bring unintended negative changes also within areas of their cultivation. This paper presents the effects of the intentional introduction of the North-American Quercus rubra in European mixed Scots pine-Pedunculate oak forests (POFs): Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981) J. Mat. 1988. Phytosociological data from field research combined with GIS data analysis of the current distribution of Northern Red oak in the studied habitat were used to determine the composition and structure of forest communities in plots with and without Q. rubra participation. 

The results show that Q. rubra significantly reduces native species richness and abundance, both in old-growth and in secondary (post-agricultural) forests. Not one resident vascular plant benefits from the introduction of Northern Red oak and only a few are able to tolerate its co-occurrence. The natural restocking of all native woody species is also strongly limited by this alien tree. 

The introduction of Northern Red oak significantly limits the environmental functions of the POF ecosystem and weakens its economic and social aspects. However, its further cultivation is justified from an economic point of view, as the essential function of the studied forests is commercial timber production, and the introduction of this fast growing alien tree supports the provisioning ecosystem services. A clear description of the level of trade-off between the accepted negative and positive effects of the introduction of Q. rubra on forest ecosystem services requires further interdisciplinary studies.


Keywords


Northern Red oak; biodiversity; commercial forestry; old-growth and secondary forests; ecosystem services

Full Text:

PDF

References


Zobel BJG, van Wyk G, Stahl P. Growing exotic forests. New York, NY: Wiley; 1987.

Sedjo RA. The potential of high-yield plantation forestry for meeting timber needs. New For. 1999;17(1–3):339–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006563420947

Palmberg-Lerche C, Iversen PA, Sigaud P. Global data on forest plantations resources [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2012 Apr 22]; Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y2316E/y2316e0b.htm

Richardson DM. Forestry trees as invasive aliens. Conserv Biol. 1998;12(1):18–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.1998.96392.x

Rouget M, Richardson DM, Nel JL, van Wilgen BW. Commercially important trees as invasive aliens: towards spatially explicit risk assessment at a national scale. Biol Invasions. 2002;4(4):397–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023611713339

Haysom KA, Murphy ST. The status of invasiveness of forest tree species outside their natural habitat: a global review and discussion paper [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2012 Feb 22]; Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/j1583e/j1583e00.htm

Moore BA. Alien invasive species: impacts on forests and forestry–a review [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2012 Feb 20]; Available from: http://www.fao.org//docrep/008/j6854e/j6854e00.htm

Kohli RK, Jose S, Pal Singh H, Batish DR, editors. Invasive plants and forest ecosystems. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2009.

Martin PH, Canham CD. Dispersal and recruitment limitation in native versus exotic tree species: life-history strategies and Janzen–Connell effects. Oikos. 2010;119(5):807–824. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.17941.x

Richardson DM, Rejmánek M. Trees and shrubs as invasive alien species – a global review. Divers Distrib. 2011;17(5):788–809. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00782.x

Essl F, Moser D, Dullinger S, Mang T, Hulme PE. Selection for commercial forestry determines global patterns of alien conifer invasions. Divers Distrib. 2010;16(6):911–921. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00705.x

Vilà M, Basnou C, Pyšek P, Josefsson M, Genovesi P, Gollasch S, et al. How well do we understand the impacts of alien species on ecosystem services? A pan-European, cross-taxa assessment. Front Ecol Env. 2010;8(3):135–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/080083

Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Hulme PE, Pergl J, Hejda M, Schaffner U, et al. A global assessment of invasive plant impacts on resident species, communities and ecosystems: the interaction of impact measures, invading species’ traits and environment. Glob Change Biol. 2012;18(5):1725–1737. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02636.x

Armstrong AJ, van Hensbergen HJ. Impacts of afforestation with pines on assemblages of native biota in South Africa. Afr J. 1996;175(1):35–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00382167.1996.9629891

Spellerberg IF, Sawyer JWD. Standards for biodiversity: a proposal based on biodiversity standards for forest plantations. Biodivers Conserv. 1996;5(4):447–459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00056390

Vanhellemont M, Verheyen K, Staelens J, Hermy M. Factors affecting radial growth of the invasive Prunus serotina in pine plantations in Flanders. Eur J Res. 2009;129(3):367–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10342-009-0342-y

Hutchinson TF, Vankat JL. Invasibility and effects of Amur honeysuckle in southwestern Ohio forests. Conserv Biol. 1997;11(5):1117–1124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96001.x

Orr SP, Rudgers JA, Clay K. Invasive plants can inhibit native tree seedlings: testing potential allelopathic mechanisms. Plant Ecol. 2005;181(2):153–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11258-005-5698-6

Stinson KA, Campbell SA, Powell JR, Wolfe BE, Callaway RM, Thelen GC, et al. Invasive plant suppresses the growth of native tree seedlings by disrupting belowground mutualisms. PLoS Biol. 2006;4(5):e140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040140

Meiners SJ. Apparent competition: an impact of exotic shrub invasion on tree regeneration. Biol Invasions. 2007;9(7):849–855. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-006-9086-5

Webster CR, Jenkins MA, Jose S. Woody invaders and the challenges they pose to forest ecosystems in the eastern United States. J For. 2006;104(7):366–374.

Collier MH, Vankat JL, Hughes MR. Diminished plant richness and abundance below Lonicera maackii, an invasive shrub. Am Midl Nat. 2002;147(1):60–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1674/0003-0031(2002)147[0060:DPRAAB]2.0.CO;2

Huebner CD. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data. Castanea. 2003;68(1):1–14.

Lichstein JW, Grau HR, Aragón R. Recruitment limitation in secondary forests dominated by an exotic tree. J Veg Sci. 2004;15(6):721–728. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2004.tb02314.x

Simberloff D, Parker IM, Windle PN. Introduced species policy, management, and future research needs. Front Ecol Env. 2005;3(1):12–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2005)003[0012:ISPMAF]2.0.CO;2

van Wilgen BW, Dyer C, Hoffmann JH, Ivey P, Le Maitre DC, Moore JL, et al. National-scale strategic approaches for managing introduced plants: insights from Australian acacias in South Africa: strategic approaches for managing introduced acacias. Divers Distrib. 2011;17(5):1060–1075. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00785.x

Chytrý M, Wild J, Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Dendoncker N, Reginster I, et al. Projecting trends in plant invasions in Europe under different scenarios of future land-use change: projecting future plant invasions in Europe. Glob Ecol Biogeogr. 2012;21(1):75–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00573.x

Hulme PE. Weed risk assessment: a way forward or a waste of time? J Appl Ecol. 2012;49(1):10–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02069.x

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press; 2005.

Young SL. What contributions are invasive plant species making to ecosystem services? J Soil Water Conserv. 2010;65(2):31A–32A. http://dx.doi.org/10.2489/jswc.65.2.31A

de Wit MP, Crookes DJ, van Wilgen BW. Conflicts of interest in environmental management: estimating the costs and benefits of a tree invasion. Biol Invasions. 2001;3(2):167–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014563702261

Patterson TM, Coelho DL. Ecosystem services: foundations, opportunities, and challenges for the forest products sector. Ecol

Manage. 2009;257(8):1637–1646. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.11.010

Devine K, Fei S. A review of impacts by invasive exotic plants on forest ecosystem services. In: Proceedings of the 17th central hardwood forest conference GTR-NRS-P-78. Newtown Square, PA: USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station; 2011. p. 425–435.

Bucharova A, van Kleunen M. Introduction history and species characteristics partly explain naturalization success of North American woody species in Europe. J Ecol. 2009;97(2):230–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2008.01469.x

Hereźniak J. American trees and shrubs in the Polish territories. In: Ławrynowicz M, Warcholińska AU, editors. Łódź: Scientific Society in Łódź; 1992. p. 97–150. (vol 9).

Magni Diaz CR. Reconstitution de l’introduction de Quercus rubra L. en Europe et conséquences génétiques dans les populations allochtones. Paris: ENGREF; 2004.

Król S. Northen red oak – Quercus rubra L. in forest environment in western part of Poland. Pr Kom Nauk Rol Kom Nauk Leśnych. 1967;21:419–482.

Vansteenkiste D, de Boever L, van Acker J. Alternative processing solutions for red oak (Quercus rubra) from converted forests in Flanders, Belgium. In: Proceedings of the COST action E44 conference on broad spectrum utilization of wood at BOKU. Vienna:

BOKU; 2005. p. 13–26.

Rédei K, Csiha I, Keserű Z, Rásó J, Győri J. Management of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) stands in the Nyírség forest region (Eastern Hungary). Hung Agric Res. 2010;3:13–17.

Lambdon PW, Pyšek P, Basnou C, Hejda M, Arianoutsou M, Essl F, et al. Alien flora of Europe: species diversity, temporal trends, geographical patterns and research needs. Preslia. 2008;80:101–149.

Woziwoda B. Expansion of northern red oak Quercus rubra L. supported by anthropogenic factors. In: Mazur S, Tracz H, editors. VIII symposium of protection of forests ecosystem: human threats to forest ecosystems, identification – monitoring – management. Warsaw: Warsaw University of Life Sciences Press; 2008. p. 259–263.

Sander IL. Quercus rubra L. northern red oak. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture; 1990. (vol 2).

Murat E. Forest cultivation in details. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Świat; 2002.

AHEC (American Hardwood Export Council) [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2012 Nov 30]; Available from: http//www.ahec-europe.org

Chmura D. Penetration and naturalization of invasive alien plant species (neophytes) in woodlands of the Silesian Upland (Southern Poland). Nat Conserv. 2004;60:3–11.

Otręba A, Ferchmin M. Alien tree species as indicators of environmental transformation in Kampinoski National Park. SiM CEPL. 2007;2/3(16):234–244.

Jakubowska-Gabara J, Woziwoda B. Decrease of vascular flora diversity in forest communities connected with invasive red oak Quercus rubra L. In: Coles S, Dimopoulos P, editors. 52 Symposium of IAVS: vegetation processes and human impact in a changing world. Chania: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009. p. 179.

Marozas V, Straigytė L, Šepetienie J. Comparative analysis of alien oak (Quercus rubra L.) and native common oak (Quercus robur L.) vegetation in Lithuania. Acta Biol Univ Daugavpilensis. 2009;9(1):19–24.

Pyšek P, Danihelka J, Sádlo J, Chrtek JJ, Chytrý M, Jarošík V, et al. Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic (2nd edition): checklist update, taxonomic diversity and invasion patterns. Preslia. 2012;84:155–255.

Tokarska-Guzik B. The establishment and spread of alien plant species (kenophytes) in the flora of Poland. Katowice: University of Silesia Press; 2005.

Institute of Nature Conservation PA of S. Alien species in Poland. Data base [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2012 Feb 18]; Available from: http//www.iop.krakow.pl/ias

Riepšas E, Straigytè L. Invasiveness and ecological effects of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in Lithuanian forests. Balt For. 2008;14(2):122–130.

Kuc M, Piszczek M, Janusz A. Importance of northern red oak Quercus rubra L. in forest ecosystems and economic calculus in Regional Directorate of State Forests in Katowice. SiM CEPL. 2012;33(4):

–159.

Obwieszczenie Marszałka Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 25 sierpnia 2009 r. w sprawie ogłoszenia jednolitego tekstu ustawy o ochronie przyrody. 2009.

Dz. U. 2009.151.1220. Art.120. p. 4.

Rozwałka Z. Zasady hodowli lasu. Bedoń: Ośrodek Rozwojowo-Wdrożeniowy Lasów Państwowych w Bedoniu; 2003.

Haze M, editor. Zasady hodowli lasu. Warsaw: Centrum Informacyjne Lasów Państwowych; 2012.

Dz. U. 2011.2010.1260

Woziwoda B, Kałucka I, Ruszkiewicz-Michalska M, Sławska M, Sławski M, Tołoczko W, et al. Interdisciplinary research of ecological effects of Northern Red oak Quercus rubra L. introduction in forest ecosystems (central Poland) – the principles and aims of study. SiM CEPL. 2012;33(4):181–192.

Peterken GF. A method for assessing woodland flora for conservation using indicator species. Biol Cons. 1974;6(4):239–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(74)90001-9

Majchrowska A, Woziwoda B. Effects of forest history on the biodiversity of vascular plants flora. In: Holeksa J, Babczyńska-Sendek B, Wika S, editors. The role of geobotany in biodiversity conservation. Katowice: University of Silesia Press; 2009. p. 49–58.

Matuszkiewicz JM. Forest communities of Poland. Warsaw: Polish Scientific Publishers PWN; 2001.

Matuszkiewicz W. A guide to identification of the plant communities of Poland. Warsaw: Polish Scientific Publishers PWN; 2002.

Braun-Blanquet J. Pflanzensoziologie: Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde. 3rd ed. Vienna: Springer-Verlag; 1964.

ter Braak CJF, Šmilauer P. CANOCO reference manual and CanoDraw for Windows user’s guide: software for canonical community ordination (version 4.5). Ithaca, NY: Microcomputer Power; 2002.

Canham CD, Finzi AC, Pacala SW, Burbank DH. Causes and consequences of resource heterogeneity in forests: interspecific variation in light transmission by canopy trees. Can J Res. 1994;24(2):337–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x94-046

Ellenberg H, Weber HE, Düll R, Wirth V, Werner W, Paulißen D. Zeigerwerte von Pflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Scr Geobot. 1991;18:1–248.

Kwiatkowska AJ. Changes in the species richness, spatial pattern and species frequency associated with the decline of oak forest. Vegetatio. 1994;112(2):171–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00044691

Sonohat G, Balandier P, Ruchaud F. Predicting solar radiation transmittance in the understory of even-aged coniferous stands in temperate forests. Ann Sci. 2004;61(7):629–641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:2004061

Tinya F, Márialigeti S, Király I, Németh B, Ódor P. The effect of light conditions on herbs, bryophytes and seedlings of temperate mixed forests in Őrség, Western Hungary. Plant Ecol. 2009;204(1):69–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11258-008-9566-z

Barbier S, Gosselin F, Balandier P. Influence of tree species on understory vegetation diversity and mechanisms involveda-a critical review for temperate and boreal forests. Ecol Manage. 2008;254(1):1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.09.038

Knight KS, Oleksyn J, Jagodzinski AM, Reich PB, Kasprowicz M. Overstorey tree species regulate colonization by native and exotic plants: a source of positive relationships between understorey diversity and invasibility: tree species, diversity, and invasibility. Divers Distrib. 2008;14(4):666–675. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2008.00468.x

Robakowski P, Bielinis E. Competition between sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and black cherry (Padus serotina) : dynamics of seedlings growth. Pol J Ecol. 2011;59(2):297–306.

Starfinger U. Die Einbürgerung der Spätblühenden Trubenkirsche (Padus serotina Ehrh.) in Mitteleuropa. Landschaftsenwicklung Umweltforchung. 1990;69:119.

Godefroid S, Phartyal SS, Weyembergh G, Koedam N. Ecological factors controlling the abundance of non-native invasive black cherry (Prunus serotina) in deciduous forest understory in Belgium. Ecol Manage. 2005;210(1–3):91–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.02.024

Dzwonko Z. Effect of proximity to ancient deciduous woodland on restoration of the field layer vegetation in a pine plantation. Ecography. 2001;24(2):198–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0587.2001.240210.x

Augusto L, Dupouey JL, Ranger J. Effects of tree species on understory vegetation and environmental conditions in temperate forests. Ann Sci. 2003;60(8):823–831. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:2003077

Collier M, Farrell EP. The environmental impact of planting broadleaved trees on acid-sensitive soils. Literature review. Dublin: COFORD; 2007.

Straigytė L, Žalkauskas R. Effect of climate variability on Quercus rubra phenotype and spread in Lithuanian forests. Dendrobiology. 2012;67:79–85.

Richardson DM, Macdonald IAW, Forsyth GG. Reduction in plant species richness under stands of alien trees and shrubs in fynbos biome. Afr J. 1989;149(1):1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00382167.1989.9628986

Winter M, Schweiger O, Klotz S, Nentwig W, Andriopoulos P, Arianoutsou M, et al. Plant extinctions and introductions lead to phylogenetic and taxonomic homogenization of the European flora. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009;106(51):21721–21725. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0907088106

Peterken GF. Ecological effects of introduced tree species in Britain. Ecol Manage. 2001;141(1–2):31–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00487-4

Olden JD, Poff NL. Towards the mechanistic understanding and prediction of biotic homogenization. Am Nat. 2003;162(4):442–460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/378212

Rejmánek M, Richardson DM, Pyšek P. Plant invasions and invasibility of plant communities. In: van der Maarel E, Franklin J, editors. Vegetation ecology. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013. p. 387–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118452592.ch13/summary

Hejda M, Pyšek P, Jarošík V. Impact of invasive plants on the species richness, diversity and composition of invaded communities. J Ecol. 2009;97(3):393–403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01480.x

Hibbs DE. Forty years of forest succession in central New England. Ecology. 1983;64(6):1394–1401. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1937493

Wangen S, Webster C. Spatial and temporal dynamic of exotic tree invasions: lesson from a shade–tolerant invader, Acer platanoides. In: Kumar Kohli R, Jose S, Pal Singh H, Rani Batish D, editors. Invasive plants and forest ecosystems. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2008. p. 71–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781420043389.ch5

Dodet M, Collet C. When should exotic forest plantation tree species be considered as an invasive threat and how should we treat them? Biol Invasions. 2012;14(9):1765–1778. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-012-0202-4

Zieliński J, Nowak G. Trees and shrubs used in rehabilitation of industrial waste stockpiles. In: Drozdek ME, editor. Plants for special tasks. Sulechów: Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa; 2011. p. 455–466.

Thomaes A, Keersmaeker L, Schrijver A, Vandekerkhove K, Verschelde P, Verheyen K. Can tree species choice influence recruitment of ancient forest species in post-agricultural forest? Plant Ecol. 2010;212(4):573–584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11258-010-9847-1

Hobbs RJ, Arico S, Aronson J, Baron JS, Bridgewater P, Cramer VA, et al. Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Glob Ecol Biogeo. 2006;15(1):1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-822X.2006.00212.x

Kubiak D. Lichens of red oak Quercus rubra in the forest environment in the Olsztyn Lake District (NE Poland). Acta Mycol. 2006;41(2):319–328. http://dx.doi.org/10.5586/am.2006.033

Price list of the wood range. Załącznik nr 1. In: Zarządzenie nr 1/13 Nadleśniczego Nadleśnictwa Poddębice z dnia 2 stycznia 2013 r. Poddębice: Nadleśnictwo Poddębice; 2013. p. 1–4.

Bellon S, Tumiłowicz J, Król S, editors. Alien woody species in forest management. Warsaw: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne; 1977.

Danusevičius J, Gabrilavičius R, Danusevičius D. Quality of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) stands on abandoned land. Balt For. 2002;8:51–56.

Hulme PE, Nentwig W, Pyšek P, Vila M. Common market, shared problems: time for a coordinated response to biological invasions in Europe? Biological invasions: towards a synthesis. Neobiota. 2009;8:3–19.

Pejchar L, Mooney HA. Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trends Ecol Evol. 2009;24(9):497–504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2009.03.016

Yokomizo H, Possingham HP, Hulme PE, Grice AC, Buckley YM. Cost-benefit analysis for intentional plant introductions under uncertainty. Biol Invasions. 2012;14(4):839–849. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-011-0120-x

Danielewicz W, Maliński T. Trees and shrubs of alien origin in Wielkopolski National Park. Rocz Dendrol. 1997;45:65–81.

Adamowski W, Dworak L, Ramanjuk I. 102 - Atlas of alien woody species of the Białowieża primeval forest. Phytocoenosis (N.S.). Cartogr Geobot. 2002;supp 14:7–303.

Verloove F. Catalogue of the Neophytes in Belgium (1800–2005). Scr Bot Belg. 2006;39:1–89.

Medvecká J, Kliment J, Májeková J, Halada Ľ, Zaliberová M, Gojdičová E, et al. Inventory of the alien flora of Slovakia. Preslia. 2012;84:257–309.