Metabolic activity of tree saps of different origin towards cultured human cells in the light of grade correspondence analysis and multiple regression modeling

Artur Wnorowski, Maciej Bilek, Kinga Stawarczyk, Michał Gostkowski, Marcin Olszewski, Magdalena Wójciak-Kosior, Ireneusz Sowa


Tree saps are nourishing biological media commonly used for beverage and syrup production. Although the nutritional aspect of tree saps is widely acknowledged, the exact relationship between the sap composition, origin, and effect on the metabolic rate of human cells is still elusive. Thus, we collected saps from seven different tree species and conducted composition-activity analysis. Saps from trees of Betulaceae, but not from Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, nor Juglandaceae families, were increasing the metabolic rate of HepG2 cells, as measured using tetrazolium-based assay. Content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, chlorides, nitrates, sulphates, fumarates, malates, and succinates in sap samples varied across different tree species. Grade correspondence analysis clustered trees based on the saps’ chemical footprint indicating its usability in chemotaxonomy. Multiple regression modeling showed that glucose and fumarate present in saps from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.), black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.), and European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) are positively affecting the metabolic activity of HepG2 cells.


tree saps; hepatocytes; data mining; natural beverages

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