Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Li people in Ledong, Hainan Island, China

Weijuan Huang, Ping Li, Yujing Liu, Wen Huang, Yan Ju, Jianjun Wang, Chia B. Ntumwel, Chunlin Long

Abstract


The paper documents on the uses of traditional medicinal plants used for treating human ailments in three villages of Ledong, a county inhabited by Li ethnic group in the southwest of Hainan Province, China. Semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews and participatory observations were used to collect ethnobotanical data from February to March 2012 and in July 2013. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Thirty native knowledgeable people were interviewed. The Li community uses 50 plant species in 36 families for medicinal purposes. The most common medicinal plant families were Leguminosae (14%), Compositae (6%), and Euphorbiaceae (6%), and the most common preparations methods were decoction (84%), crushing (38%), and poultice (34%). The traditional medicinal plants were mainly used for hemostasis (12.9%), body pains (11.4%), gastrointestinal disorders (11.4%), and trauma (10%). Twenty-four species of medicinal plants (48%) have never been reported in the literature of Li medicines. In addition, 22 species (44%) have already been studied by researchers and their extracts or compounds were good bio-actives. However, the rapid socio-economic development in the county is the main threat to the conservation of Li medicine and has resulted in the decrease in the abundance and use of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Other factors accounting for a decrease in the use of Li medicinal plants like loss of plant diversity, change of land use, and threatened traditional knowledge were equally discussed.

Keywords


ethnobotany; traditional knowledge; ethnomedicine; Li ethnic group; medicinal plants

Full Text:

PDF

References


Cheung F. TCM: made in China. Nature. 2011;480(7378):S82–S83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/480S82a

Gesler WM. Therapeutic landscapes: medical issues in light of the new cultural geography. Soc Sci Med. 1992;34:735–746. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(92)90360-3

Azaizeh H, Fulder S, Khalil K, Said O. Ethnomedicinal knowledge of local Arab practitioners in the Middle East region. Fitoterapia. 2003;74(1–2):98–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00285-X

Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR. The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109(1 suppl):69–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.01109s169

Cordell GA, Colvard MD. Natural products and traditional medicine: turning on a paradigm. J Nat Prod. 2012;75(3):514–525. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np200803m

Ling C, Yue X, Ling C. Three advantages of using traditional Chinese medicine to prevent and treat tumor. J Integr Med. 2014;12(4):331–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60038-8

Li X, Xu X, Wang J, et al. A system-level investigation into the mechanisms of Chinese traditional medicine: compound Danshen formula for cardiovascular disease treatment. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e43918. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043918

Han SY, Li HX, Ma X, Zhang K, Ma ZZ, Jiang Y, et al. Evaluation of the anti-myocardial ischemia effect of individual and combined extracts of Panax notoginseng and Carthamus tinctorius in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;145:722–727. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.11.036

Ding YF, Li F, Yang H. A brief exposition on study of different nationalities’ traditional drugs of China. Journal of Medicine and Pharmacy of Chinese Minorities. 2001;7:20–22.

Wu X, Wang L, Wang H, Dai Y, Ye WC, Li YL. Steroidal saponins from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Phytochemistry. 2012;81:133–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.05.034

Yin HX, Zhang H. Quality evaluation and germplasm survey of endangered ethno-medicine of Rhizoma paridis. Lishizhen Medicine and Materia Medica Research. 2009;20:2863–2865.

Qiu PH, Xu SJ, Xie GZ, Tang BN, Bi H, Yu LS. Analysis of the ecological vulnerability of the western Hainan Island based on its landscape pattern and ecosystem sensitivity. Acta Ecologica Sinica. 2007;27:1257–1264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2032(07)60026-2

Long W, Yang X, Li D. Patterns of species diversity and soil nutrients along a chronosequence of vegetation recovery in Hainan Island, south China. Ecol Res. 2012;27(3):561–568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11284-011-0923-3

Yao HX, Chen XP, Lin L, Wu CM, Fu XJ, Wang H, et al. The spectrum of α- and β-thalassemia mutations of the Li people in Hainan Province of China. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2014;53:16–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcmd.2014.01.003

Guan YL, Pan Q, Huang MR. Ethnobotany and exploitation of medicinal plant resource in Hainan. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University. 2009;33:145–149.

Reyes-García V, Guèze M, Luz AC, Paneque-Gálvez J, Macía MJ, Orta-Martínez M, et al. Evidence of traditional knowledge loss among a contemporary indigenous society. Evol Hum Behav. 2013;34(4):249–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2013.03.002

Wang BS, Peng SL, Guo L, Ye YH. Diversity of tropical forest landscape types in Hainan Island, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica. 2007;27:1690–1695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2032(07)60040-7

Schmid CK. Ethnobotany: principles and applications. Biodivers Conserv. 1998;7(6):844–845. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008959420644

Meilleur BA. Alluetain ethnoecology and traditional economy: the procurement and production of plant resources in the northern French Alps [PhD thesis]. St. Louis, MO: Washington University; 1986.

Song ZH, Ji ZN, Lo CK, Dong TT, Zhao KJ, Li OT, et al. Chemical and biological assessment of a traditional Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis: orthogonal array design to optimize the extraction of chemical constituents. Planta Med. 2004, 70(12):1222–1227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-835855

Zhang RJ, Xing FW, Ng SC, Ye YS, Wang FG, Chen HQ. The alien plants and environment evaluation of Yinggeling Mountain, Hainan, China. Ecology and Environment. 2007;16(3):906–911.

Zheng XL, Xing FW. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants around Mt Yinggeling, Hainan Island, China. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124(2):197–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.04.042

Zheng XL, Chen HF, Li RT, Xing FW. Medical ethnobotany of the Run dialect people of Li minority in Hainan. Acta Botanica Yunnanica. 2008;30:195–210.

Gan BC, Yang XQ, Li RT, He MJ, Du DL. Indigenous traditional medicine and utilization of plants by Li nationality. Journal of Medicine and Pharmacy of Chinese Minorities. 2006;2:24–26.

Long CL. Traditional management of natural resources in ethnic societies. Beijing: China Environmental Science Press; 2009.

The Statistical Bureau of Hainan Province. Hainan statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2007.

The Statistical Bureau of Hainan Province. Hainan statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2008.

The Statistical Bureau of Hainan Province. Hainan statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2009.

The Statistical Bureau of Hainan Province. Hainan statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2010.

The Statistical Bureau of Hainan Province. Hainan statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2011.

The Statistical Bureau of Hainan Province. Hainan statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2012.

The Statistical Bureau of Yunnan Province. Yunnan statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2009.

The Statistical Bureau of Yunnan Province. Yunnan statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2010.

The Statistical Bureau of Yunnan Province. Yunnan statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2011.

The Statistical Bureau of Yunnan Province. Yunnan statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2012.

Zhai DL, Cannon CH, Slik JW, Zhang CP, Dai ZC. Rubber and pulp plantations represent a double threat to Hainan’s natural tropical forests. J Environ Manage. 2012;96(1):64–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.10.011

Zheng XL, Xing FW. Preliminary study on folk medicinal plant nomenclature and classification of Li people in Hainan. Journal of China Traditional Chinese Medicine Information. 2010;2:68–70.

Mei WL, Chen P, Wang H, Huang JL, Dai HF. Two new sesquiterpenes from endophytic fungus S49 of Cephalotaxus hainanensis. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2010;12(7):582–585. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2010.485934

Mohammed SA, Rana MJ, Jehan HA, Wafa AE, Fatemah AK, Kifayeh HQ, et al. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (northern West Bank): a comparative study. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007;4:13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-4-13

Spino C, Dodier M, Sotheeswarah S. Anti-HIV coumarins from Calophyllum seed oil. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 1998;8(24):3475–3478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-894X(98)00628-3

Verma S, Singh SP. Current and future status of herbal medicines. Vet World. 2008;1:347–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/vetworld.2008.347-350

Liang ZY, Yang XS, Zhu HY, Hao XJ. Two new flavones from Fordia cauliflora of Yunnan. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. 2006;41(6):533–536.

Huang QF, Li YW, Zhang SJ, Huang RB, Zheng L, Wei L, et al. Effect and mechanism of methyl helicterate isolated from Helicteres angustifolia (Sterculiaceae) on hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143:889–895. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.08.018

Samy RP, Gopalakrishnakone P. Nature Precedings [Internet]. Current status of herbal medicines and their future perspectives. 2007 [cited 2016 Mar 22]. Available from: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/1176/version/1

Long CL, Li SM, Long B, Shi YN, Liu BX. Medicinal plants used by the Yi ethnic group: a case study in central Yunnan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2009;5:13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-5-13

Haider S, Nazreen S, Alam MM, Gupta A, Hamid H, Alam MS. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanolic extract and its various fractions from Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;138(3):741–747. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.10.012

He ZH, Ge W, Yue GG, Lau CB, He MF, But PP. Anti-angiogenic effects of the fruit of Alpinia oxyphylla. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;132(2):443–449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.08.024

Panossian A, Wikman G. Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata in upper respiratory tract infectious diseases and the mechanism of action. Evidence and Rational Based Research on Chinese Drugs. 2013;137–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-0442-2_4

Lee DY, Choo BK, Yoon T, Chenon MS, Lee HW, Lee AY, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of Asparagus cochinchinensis extract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121(1):28–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2008.07.006

Afzal M, Gupta G, Kazmi I, Rahman M, Afzal O, Alam J, et al. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of a novel steroidal derivative from Bryophyllum pinnatum. Fitoterapia. 2012;83(5):853–858. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2012.03.013

Wang Y, Curtis MJ, Yuk HJ, Kim DW, Tan XF, Park KH. Bacterial neuraminidase inhibitory effects of prenylated isoflavones from roots of Flemingia philippinensis. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;12(21):6398–6404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2013.08.049

Kachchhi NR, Parmar RK, Tirgar PR, Desai TR, Bhalodia PN. Evaluation of the antiurolithiatic activity of methanolic extract of Celosia argentea roots in rats. International Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2012;3(3):249–255.

Huang HC, Lin MK, Hwang SY, Hwang TL, Kuo YH, Chang CI, et al. Two anti-inflammatory steroidal saponins from Dracaena angustifolia Roxb. Molecules. 2013;18(8):8752–8763. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18088752

Tewtrakul S, Subhadhirasakul S, Tansakul P, Cheenpracha S, Karalai C. Antiinflammatory constituents from Eclipta prostrata using RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Phytother Res. 2011;25(9):1313–1316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3383

Paulsamy S, Moorthy D, Nandakumar K, Saradha M. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts of the ferns, Actiniopteris radiata (Sw) Link. and Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. Int J Res Dev Pharm L Sci. 2013;2(3):451–455.

Rojas-Silva P, Graziose R, Vesely B, Poulev A, Mbeunkui F, Grace MH, et al. Leishmanicidal activity of a daucane sesquiterpene isolated from Eryngium foetidum. Pharm Biol. 2014;52(3):398–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2013.837077

Takawale H, Mute V, Awari D, Hukkeri VI, Mehta P, Vawhal P. Screening of antiulcer activity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. Bark. against aspirin induced ulcer in rats. World Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011;6(4):168–172.

Huo LN, Lu RM, Li PY, Chen R, Deng CC, Lu CS, et al. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of extracts from the stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour. Grasas y Aceites. 2011;62(2):149–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.066810

Sathish R, Vyawahare B, Natarajah K. Antiulcerogenic activity of Lantana camara leaves on gastric and duodenal ulcers in experimental rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134(1):195–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.049

Zakaria ZA, Patahuddin H, Mohamad AS, Israf DA, Sulaiman MR. In vivo anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Piper sarmentosum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128(1):42–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.12.021

Lin LC, Yang LL, Chou CJ. Cytotoxic naphthoquinones and plumbagic acid glucosides from Plumbago zeylanica. Phytochemistry. 2003;62(4):619–622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00519-8

Peng MM, Fang Y, Hu W, Huang Q. The pharmacological activities of compound Salvia plebeia Granules on treating urinary tract infection. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;129(1):59–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.02.029

Ahmed Y, Sohrab MH, Al-Reza SM, Tareq FS, Hasan CM, Sattar MA. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic constituents from leaves of Sapium baccatum. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48(2):549–552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.11.030

Deore SL, Khadabadi SS, Kamdi KS, Ingle VP, Kawalkar NG, Sawarkar PS, et al. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Cassia tora. International Journal of ChemTech Research. 2009;1(2):177–179.

Kumar RB, Kar B, Dolai N, Bala A, Haldar PK. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties of Streblus asper Lour against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2012;2(2):139–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2222-1808(12)60032-2

Han N, Huang T, Wang YC, Yin J, Kadota S. Flavanone glycosides from Viscum coloratum and their inhibitory effects on osteoclast formation. Chem Biodivers. 2011;8(9):1682–1688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201000289

Bhattacharya S, Zaman MK. Ameliorative effect of Zanthoxylum nitidum root in chemical and stress induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Middle East J Sci Res. 2012;12(10):1349–1353.