Phenolic compounds and properties of antioxidants in grapevine roots (Vitis vinifera L.) under low-temperature stress followed by recovery

Stanisław Weidner, Edyta Kordala, Wioletta Brosowska-Arendt, Magdalena Karamać, Agnieszka Kosińska, Ryszard Amarowicz

Abstract


The research has been performed on roots of Vitis vinifera, cv. Himrod, obtained from seedlings grown under chill stress conditions (+10oC in the day and +7oC at night), under optimum conditions (+25oC in the day and +18oC at night) and from seedling which underwent a recover period after the chill stress treatment. The purpose of the study has been to determine quantitative and qualitative changes in phenolic compounds as well as to demonstrate changes in antiradical properties of extracts from grapevine roots, which appeared as a result of chill stress and during recovery under the optimum conditions following the stress. Phenolic compounds from grapevine roots were extracted using 80% acetone. The total content of phenolics was determined by colorimetry. The content of tannins was tested by precipitation with bovine serum albumin. The reducing power as well as DPPH• free radical and ABTS+• cation radical scavenging activity of the extracts were also tested. In order to identify phenolic compounds present in the extracts the RP-HPLC technique was employed. The tested material was found to contain tannins and three identified phenolic acids: ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric ones. The latter occurred in the highest concentrations (from 4.46 to 6.28 µg/g fresh matter). Ferulic acid appeared in smaller amounts (from 1.68 to 2.65 µg/g fresh matter), followed by caffeic acid (from 0.87 to 1.55 µg/g fresh matter). Significantly less total phenolic compounds occurred in roots of seedlings subjected to chill stress. However, the total content of these compounds increased significantly in roots of plants which underwent recovery after chill stress. Concentration of tannins was determined by two methods. The content of condensed tannins was depressed in roots as a result of low temperature stress, whereas the content of condensed and hydrolysing tannins (determined via the BSA method) rose under chill stress conditions. A significant increase in tannins in root extracts (determined with both methods) was found during the recovery process after the stress. The three identified phenolic acids appeared in grapevine roots as ester-bound compounds. It has been demonstrated that the content of phenolic acids significantly fell as a result of low temperatures, but increased during recovery after chill stress. The weakest ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS+• free radicals as well as the reducing power were shown by the extract obtained from grapevine roots from the seedlings subjected to chill stress. Both free radical scavenging activity and reducing power were observed to increase considerably during recovery after stress. This seems to prove that during the recovery process following chill stress the synthesis of antioxidative compounds in grapevine roots is much more intensive.

Keywords


antioxidant system; oxidative stress; chill stress; grapevine roots; phenolic compounds

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