Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

Anna Geraci, Vincenza Polizzano, Pasquale Marino, Rosario Schicchi

Abstract


In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium) of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The length of polar axis (P) and the equatorial diameter (E) of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C), diameter of perforations (DP) and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN), the width of muri (WM), the distance between muri (DM) and their number in 25 μm2 (MN), the width of grooves (WG) were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved) compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars) related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

Keywords


Pollen morphology; SEM; Sicilian Prunus; species; cultivars

Full Text:

PDF

References


Schicchi R, Marino P, Raimondo FM. Individuazione, valutazione e raccolta del germoplasma delle specie arboree da frutto di prevalente interesse negli agrosistemi tradizionali della Sicilia. Palermo: Dipartimento Azienda Regionale Foreste Demaniali; 2008.

Lee S, Wen J. A phylogenetic analysis of Prunus and the Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Am J Bot. 2001;88(1):150-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2657135

Dönmez AA, Yildirimli S. Taxonomy of genus Prunus L. (Rosaceae) in Turkey. Turk J Bot. 2000;24:187-202.

Evrenosoğlu Y, Misirli A. Investigations on the pollen morphology of some fruit species. Turk J Agric For. 2009;33:181-190.

Fogle HW. Identification of clones within four tree fruit species by pollen exine patterns. J Amer Soc Hort Sci. 1977;102:552-560.

Fogle HW. Identification of tree fruit species by pollen ultrastructure. J Amer Soc Hort Sci. 1977;102:548-551.

Maas JL. Pollen ultrastructure of strawberry and other small fruitcrops. J Amer Soc Hort Sci. 1977;77:548-555.

Cargnello G, Carraro L, Lombardo G, Gerola FM. Pollen morphology of Picolit grown in different Italian regions. Vitis. 1980;19:2016.

Galletta GJ. Pollen and seed management. In: Moore JN, Janick J, editors. Methods in fruit breeding. West Lafayette IN: Purdue University Press; 1983. p. 23-47.

Hebda RJ, Chinnappa CC, Smith BM. Pollen morphology of the Rosaceae of Western Canada. Grana. 1988;27(2):95-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00173138809432836

Merev N. Doğu Karadeniz Bölgesi'nde doğal olarak yetişen kuşburnu (Rosa L.) taksonlarının palinolojik yönden incelenmesi. Kuşburnu Sempozyumu Bildiriler Kitabı, Gümüşhanev. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Bahçe Bitkileri Bölümü: Kirşehir; 1996. p. 47-54.

Jones GD. Pollen as indicators of source areas and foraging resources [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2011 Jun 1]; Available from: http://pollen.usda.gov

Perveen A, Qaiser M. Pollen flora of Pakistan – XVII. Illecebraceae. Pak J Bot. 2003;35:141-144.

Chung KS, Elisens W, Skvarla J. Pollen morphology and its phylogenetic significance in tribe Sanguisorbeae (Rosaceae). Plant Syst Evol. 2010;285(3):139-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00606-009-0262-9

Moore P, Webb JA, Collinson ME. Pollen analysis. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991.

Bednorz L, Maciejewska-Rutkowska I, Wronska-Pilarek D, Fujiki T. Pollen morphology of the polish species of the genus Sorbus L. Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2005;74(4):315-322.

Wrońska-Pilarek D, Jagodziński A. Systematic importance of pollen morphological features of selected species from the genus Rosa (Rosaceae). Plant Syst Evol. 2011;295(1):55-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00606-011-0462-y

Erdtman G. An introduction to pollen analysis. Stockholm: Waltham Mass; 1943.

Erdtman G. On terminology in pollen and spore morphology. Grana. 1958;1(3):6-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00173135809436053

Hesse M, Halbritter H, Zetter R, Weber M, Buchner R, Frosch-Radivo A, et al. Pollen terminology: an illustrated handbook. Vienna: Springer; 2009.

Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD. PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron. 2001;4(1):1-9.

OECD. Stone fruits (Prunus spp.). SourceOECD Agriculture & Food. 2008;2006(21):628-660.

Ueda Y, Tomita H. Morphometric analysis of pollen exine patterns in roses. J Japan Soc Hort Sci. 1989;58(1):211-220.

Hebda RJ, Chinnappa CC. Studies on pollen morphology of Rosaceae in Canada. Rev Palaeobot Palynol. 1990;64(1-4):103-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(90)90123-Z

Hebda RJ, Chinnappa CC. Pollen morphology of the Rosaceae of western Canada. III. Geum. Can J Bot. 1990;68(6):1369-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/b90-175

Hebda RJ, Chinnappa CC, Smith BM. Pollen morphology of the Rosaceae of western Canada. IV. Luetkea, Oemleria, Physocarpus, Prunus. Can J Bot. 1991;69(12):2583-2596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/b91-322

Zhou LH, Wei ZX, Wu ZY. Pollen morphology of Prunoideae of China (Rosaceae). Acta Bot Yunnan. 1999;21:207-211.

Dönmez E. Pollen morphology in Turkish Crataegus (Rosaceae). Bot Helv. 2008;118(1):59-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00035-008-0823-5

Radice S, Ontivero M, Giordani E, Bellini E. Morphology and physiology of pollen grains of Italian Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cultivars grown in Argentina. Adv Hort Sci. 2003;17(2):93-96.

Gilani SA, Qureshi RA, Khan AM, Potter D. Morphological characterization of the pollens of the selected species of genus Prunus Linn. from Northern Pakistan. Afr J Biotechnol. 2010;9(20):2872-2879.

Arzani K, Nejatian MA, Karimzadeh G. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) pollen morphological characterisation through scanning electron microscopy, using multivariate analysis. N Z J Crop Hort Sci. 2005;33(4):381-388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2005.9514374

Vafadar M, Attar F, Maroofi H, Mirtadzadini M. Pollen morphology of Amygdalus L. (Rosaceae) in Iran. Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2010;79(1):63-71.

Zeven AC, de Wet J. Dictionary of cultivated plants and their regions of diversity: excluding most ornamentals, forest trees and lower plants. Dehra Dun: International Book Distributors; 1993.