Comparative study of the oospore morphology of two populations of a rare species Chara baueri A. Braun in Cedynia (Poland) and Batzlow (Germany)

Andrzej Pukacz, Patrycja Boszke, Mariusz J. Pełechaty, Uwe Raabe


Morphological features of oospores of Chara baueri A. Braun, one of the rarest charophyte species worldwide, were studied based on 100 oospores collected from a small and temporarily dried mid-field pond near Cedynia, Western Poland. This is the first Polish and fifth presently known locality of this species. For comparison 67 oospores from a German population (similar pond localized near Batzlow, Germany) were also measured. So far, data on morphology of C. baueri oospores as well as the species ecology are limited. The only more detailed study of oospores for this species was earlier performed on 15 oospores from Kazakhstan. Largest polar axis (LPA, length), largest equatorial diameter (LED, width), isopolarity index (ISI = LPA/LED × 100), number of ridges, width of fossa, distance from apical pole to LED (AND) and anisipolarity index (ANI = AND/LPA × 100) were measured. The comparative analysis revealed that the oospores from Poland are generally bigger and more prolate than the Ger­man ones. The differences for most of studied parameters were statistically significant. The finding is discussed in the context of habitat differentiation of both studied sites. Moreover, the results obtained of oospore measurements for both populations differs from most of the data known so far from the literature.


Chara baueri; oospores; Characeae; charophytes

Full Text:



Krause W. Charales (Charophycae). Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag; 1997.

Pełechaty M, Pukacz A. Klucz do oznaczanie gatunków ramienic (Characeae) w rzekach i jeziorach. Warsaw: Inspekcja Ochrony Środowiska. Biblioteka Monitoringu Środowiska; 2008.

John DM, Moore JA. An SEM study of the oospore of some Nitella species (Charales, Chlorophyta) with descriptions of wall ornamentation and an assessment of its taxonomic importance. Phycologia. 1987;26(3):334-355.

John DM, Moore JA, Green DR. Preliminary observations on the structure and ornamentation of the oosporangial wall in Chara (Charales, Chlorophyta). Br Phycol J. 1990;25(1):1-24.

Leitch AR, John DM, Moore JA. The oosporangium of the Characeae (Charales, Charophyta). Prog Phycol Res. 1990;7:213-268.

Casanova MT. An SEM study of developmental variation in oospore wall ornamentation of three Nitella species (Charophyta) in Australia. Phycologia. 1991;30(3):237-242.

Casanova MT. Oospore variation in three species of Chara (Charales, Chlorophyta). Phycologia. 1997;36(4):274-280.

Haas JN. First identification key for charophyte oospores from central Europe. Eur J Phycol. 1994;29(4):227-235.

Sakayama H, Miyaji K, Nagumo T, Kato M, Hara Y, Nozaki H. Taxonomic reexamination of 17 species of Nitella subgenus Tieffallenia (Charales, Charophyceae) based on internal morphology of the oospore wall and multiple DNA marker sequences. J Phycol. 2005;41(1):195-211.

de Winton MD, Dugdale TM, Clayyon JS. An identification key for oospores of the extant charophytes of New Zealand. N Z J Bot. 2007;45(3):463-476.

García A. Charophyta: their use in paleolimnology. J Paleolimnol. 1994;10(1):43-52.

Soulie-Maersche I. The paleoecological implications of the Charophyte flora of the Trinity Division, Junction, Texas. J Paleo. 1994;68(5):1145-1157.

Haas JN. Charophyte population dynamics during the Late Quaternary at Lake Bibersee, Switzerland. Aust J Bot. 1999;47(3):315-324.

Langangen A, Sviridenko BF. Chara baueri A. Br., a charophyte with a disjunct distribution. Cryptogamie Algol. 1995;16:125-132.

Raabe U. Chara baueri rediscovered in Germany – plus additional notes on Gustav Heinrich Bauer (1794-1888) and his herbarium. IRGC News. 2009;20:13-15.

Pukacz A, Pełechaty M, Raabe U. Pierwsze stanowisko Chara baueri (Characeae) w Polsce. Fragm Flor Geobot Polonica. 2009;16(2):425-429.

Wood RD. Characeae of Australia. Lehre: J. Cramer; 1972.

Hutorowicz A. Morphological variability of oospore of Chara baueri A. Braun (Characeae). Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2007;76(3):235-237.

Horn af Rantzien H. Morphological terminology relating to female charophyte gametangia and fructifications. Bot Not. 1956;109:212-259.

Echlin P. Handbook of sample preparation for scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis. New York: Springer; 2009.

Elbanowska H, Zerbe J, Siepak J. Fizyczno-chemiczne badania wód. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Uczelniane UAM; 1999.

Scheffer M, Hosper SH, Meijer ML, Moss B, Jeppesen E. Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes. Trends Ecol Evol. 1993;8(8):275-279.

Scheffer M, Jeppesen E. Alterantive stable states. In: Jeppesen E, Sondergaard M, Sondergaard M, Christofferson K, editors. The structuring role of submerged macrophytes in lakes. New York: Springer; 1998. p. 421. (Ecological studies; vol 131).

Van den Berg MS, Coops H, Meijer M, Scheffer M, Simons J. Clear water associated with a dense Chara vegetation in the shallow and turbid Lake Veluwemeer, The Netherlands. In: Charophyte colonization in shallow lakes: processes, ecological effects and implications for lake management. Daventer: Drukkerij Ve&Es; 1998. p. 85-98.

Migula W, Rabenhorst L. Die Characeen Deutschlands, Oesterreichs und der Schweiz; Unter Berücksichtigung aller Arten Europas. In: Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz. Leipzig: Eduard Kummer; 1897. (vol 5).

Dąmbska I. Charophyta – Ramienice. Warsaw: Polish Scientific Publishers PWN; 1964. (Flora słodkowodna Polski; vol 13).

Hollerbach MM, Krassavina LK. Charavye Vodorosli –Charophyta. Oprodelitel Presnovodnych Vodoroslej SSSR. Leningrad: Nauka; 1983.