Traditionally used wild edible greens in the Aegean Region of Turkey

Yunus Dogan

Abstract


Turkey has the largest coastal area in the Mediterranean, possesses an extraordinarily rich flora, and a great traditional knowledge. This diversity of plants naturally affects the traditional use of plants and is reflected in the rich Turkish cuisine. Consequently, the Mediterranean Diet (whose typical components are wild greens) constitutes one of the important elements of Turkish cuisine. For this reason, the aim of this study was to determine the consumption of wild edible green plants for the Aegean Region of Turkey and to establish the similarities to or differences from consumption in other regions and other cuisine in the Mediterranean Basin. This study compiles and evaluates the ethnobotanical data currently available. There were 111 taxa that were identified as wild edible greens in the study area belonging to 26 different families. Asteraceae (21 taxa) were the most commonly consumed as food. It was followed by Boraginaceae with 19 taxa, Apiaceae with 15 taxa and Lamiaceae with 7 taxa, respectively. Rumex and Erodium were the most represented genera with 4 species. Tamus communis and Asparagus acutifolius, Mediterranean elements and distributed in all of the Mediterranean Basin, are among the most widely consumed wild plants in the area. Wild edible plants are consumed in a variety of ways. The most common type of consumption (79 taxa) was in salads. The fact that the majority of the plants used in the area are consumed in salads shows the close relationship between the local diet and the concept of the Mediterranean Diet. As a result, very promisingly, there is a renewed or increasing interest in consuming wild food plants as part of this diet.

Keywords


wild edible greens; ethnobotany; traditional knowledge; consumption; Mediterranean Diet; Aegean; Turkey

Full Text:

PDF

References


Hu FB. The Mediterranean diet and mortality – olive oil and beyond. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(26):2595–2596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp030069

Hadjichambis ACH, Paraskeva-Hadjichambi D, Della A, Giusti EM, De Pasquale C, Lenzarini C, et al. Wild and semi-domesticated food plant consumption in seven circum-Mediterranean areas. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2008;59(5):383–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480701566495

Petrillo PL. Biocultural diversity and the Mediterranean diet. In: Burlingame B, Dernini D, editors. Sustainable diets and biodiversity directions and solutions for policy, research and action. Rome: FAO; 2012. p. 224–229.

Tardío J, Pardo-De-Santayana M, Boyd R. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants in Spain. Bot J Linn Soc. 2006;152(1):27–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2006.00549.x

Turner NJ, Łuczaj ŁJ, Migliorini P, Pieroni A, Dreon AL, Sacchetti LE, et al. Edible and tended wild plants, traditional ecological knowledge and agroecology. Crit Rev Plant Sci. 2011;30(1-2):198–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07352689.2011.554492

Pérez-López FR, Chedraui P, Haya J, Cuadros JL. Effects of the Mediterranean diet on longevity and age-related morbid conditions. Maturitas. 2009;64(2):67–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2009.07.013

Iannetta M, Colucci F, Presenti O, Vitali F. Food and energy: a sustainable approach. In: Burlingame B, Dernini D, editors. Sustainable diets and biodiversity directions and solutions for policy, research and action. Rome: FAO; 2012. p. 274–279.

Dogan Y, Nedelcheva AM, Obratov-Petkovic D, Padure IM. Plants used in traditional handicrafts in several Balkan countries. Indian J Tradit Know. 2008;7:157–161.

Ugulu I, Baslar S, Yorek N, Dogan Y. The investigation and quantitative ethnobotanical evaluation of medicinal plants used around Izmir province, Turkey. J Med Plant Res. 2009;3(5):345–367.

Wetherilt H. Evaluation of Urtica species as potential sources of important nutrients. Dev Food Sci. 1992;29:15–26.

Pieroni A, Nebel S, Santoro RF, Heinrich M. Food for two seasons: culinary uses of non-cultivated local vegetables and mushrooms in a south Italian village. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005;56(4):245–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480500146564

Dogan Y, Baslar S, Mert HH, Ay G. Plants used as natural dye sources in Turkey. Econ Bot. 2003;57(4):442–453. http://dx.doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2003)057[0442:PUANDS]2.0.CO;2

Nedelcheva AM, Dogan Y, Guarrera P. Plants traditionally used to make brooms in several European countries. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007;3(1):20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-3-20

Dogan Y, Nedelcheva AM, Baslar S. Plant patterns of silk based needlework, a traditional handcraft in Turkey. Indian J Tradit Know. 20120;9(4):640–643.

Ugulu I, Baslar S. The determination and fidelity level of medicinal plants used to make traditional Turkish salves. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(3):313–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2009.0040

Nedelcheva AM, Dogan Y, Obratov-Petkovic D, Padure IM. The traditional use of plants for handicrafts in southeastern Europe. Hum Ecol. 2011;39(6):813–828. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10745-011-9432-9

Ugulu I. Fidelity level and knowledge of medicinal plants used to make therapeutic Turkish baths. Ethno Med. 2012;6(1):1–9.

Kocman A. Ege ovalarinin iklimi. Izmir: Ege Universitesi Edebiyat Fakultesi; 1993.

Ugulu I, Dogan Y, Kesercioglu T. The vascular plants of Buca Faculty of Education Campus (Izmir): contribution to educational practices. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6:11–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.2

Yener H. Determination of horizontal and vertical distribution of tree species in Turkey via Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) satellite data and geographic information system: the case of Crimean pine (Pinus nigra). Afr J Biotechnol. 2012;11(7):1659–1673. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.3199

Markgraf F. Genetische Beziehungen der Mittelmeerflora. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges. 1934;52:68–79.

Padilla M, Capone R, Palma G. Sustainability of the food chain from field to plate: the case of the Mediterranean diet. In: Burlingame B, Dernini D, editors. Sustainable diets and biodiversity directions and solutions for policy, research and action. Rome: FAO; 2012. p. 230–241.

Zohary M. Geobotanical foundations of the Middle East. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag; 1973.

Ozturk M, Secmen O, Kondo K. Vegetation in Aegean region of Turkey. Mem Fac Integ Arts-Sci Hiroshima. 1983;8:53–62.

Ertug F. Wild edible plants of the Bodrum area (Mugla, Turkey). Turk J Bot. 2004;28:161–174.

Kaya I, Incekara N, Nemli Y. Ege Bölgesi'nde Sebze Olarak Tüketilen Yabani Kuskonmaz, Sirken, Yabani Hindiba, Rezene, Gelincik, Coban Degnegi ve Ebegümecinin Bazı Kimyasal Analizleri. Ingredients of some weeds consumed as food in Aegean region. Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi. 2004;14(1):1–6.

Dogan Y, Baslar S, Ay G, Mert HH. The use of wild edible plants in western and central Anatolia (Turkey). Econ Bot. 2004;58(4):684–690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2004)058[0684:TUOWEP]2.0.CO;2

Kargioglu M, Cenkci S, Serteser A, Evliyaoglu N, Konuk M, Kok MS, et al. An ethnobotanical survey of inner-west Anatolia, Turkey. Hum Ecol. 2008;36(5):763–777. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10745-008-9198-x

Kargioglu M, Cenkci S, Serteser A, Konuk M, Vural G. Traditional uses of wild plants in the middle Aegean region of Turkey. Hum Ecol. 2010;38(3):429–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10745-010-9318-2

Ahiskali M, Ari C, Selvi S. Edible wild plants and their consumption during winter in a rural village on Kazdagi (Mount Ida). Bocconea. 2012;24:195–198.

Davis PH. Flora of Turkey: and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 1965–1988. (vol 1–10).

Ozbucak TB, Kutbay HG, Akcin OE. The contribution of wild edible plants to human nutrition in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2006;10:98–103.

Cakilcioglu U, Khatun S. Nitrate, moisture and ash contents of edible wild plants. J Cell Plant Sci. 2011;2(1):1–5.

Redzic SJ. Wild edible plants and their traditional use in the human nutrition in Bosnia‐Herzegovina. Ecol Food Nutr. 2006;45(3):189–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03670240600648963

Kizil S. Determination of essential oil variations of Thymbra spicata var. spicata L. naturally growing in the wild flora of East Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolia regions of Turkey. Ind Crops Prod. 2010;32(3):593–600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.07.008

Alan R, Padem H. A research on the composition of Rheum ribes L., Tragopogon albinervis L., Polygonum cognatum Meissn., Chenopodium album L. and Malva neglecta Wallr. used in human nutrition in Erzurum. Gida Dergisi. 1989;14(5):281–287.

Ertug F. An ethnobotanical study in Central Anatolia (Turkey). Econ Bot. 2000;54(2):155–182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02907820

Tosun I, Karadeniz B, Yuksel S. The nitrate content of some edible wild plants consumed in Samsun region. Ekoloji. 2003;12(47):32–34.

Turan M, Kordali S, Zengin H, Dursun A, Sezen Y. Macro and micro mineral content of some wild edible leaves consumed in eastern Anatolia. Acta Agric Scand B. 2003;53(3):129–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/090647103100095

Ufuk O, Yusuf K, Maksut C. Ethnobotancal studies in the villages of the district of Ilica (Province Erzurum), Turkey. Econ Bot. 2004;58(4):691–696. http://dx.doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2004)058[0691:ESITVO]2.0.CO;2

Yücel E, Güney F, Yücel Şengün I. The wild plants consumed as a food in Mihaliccik district (Eskisehir/Turkey) and consumption forms of these plants. Bio Di Con. 2010;3(3):158–175.

Abak K, Duzenli A. Use of some wild plants as vegetables in Turkey. Acta Hortic. 1989;242:107–114.

Hadad Chi GHR, Moradi Z. The amounts and distribution of diosgenin and saponin and their carbohydrate moiety of Tamus communis L. J Agric Sci Natur Resour. 2005;12(2):55–66.

Morales P, Carvalho AM, Sánchez-Mata MC, Cámara M, Molina M, Ferreira ICFR. Tocopherol composition and antioxidant activity of Spanish wild vegetables. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2011;59(5):851–863. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-011-9726-1

Pieroni A, Nebel S, Quave C, Münz H, Heinrich M. Ethnopharmacology of liakra: traditional weedy vegetables of the Arbëreshë of the Vulture area in southern Italy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81(2):165–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00052-1

Morales P, Ferreira I, Carvalho A, Sanchez-Mata M, Camara M, Tardio J. Fatty acids profiles of some Spanish wild vegetables. Food Sci Tech Int. 2012;18(3):281–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1082013211427798

Guarrera PM. Food medicine and minor nourishment in the folk traditions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo and Latium). Fitoterapia. 2003;74(6):515–544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(03)00122-9

Tardío J, Pascual H, Morales R. Wild food plants traditionally used in the province of Madrid, Central Spain. Econ Bot. 2005;59(2):122–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2005)059[0122:WFPTUI]2.0.CO;2

Lentini F, Venza F. Wild food plants of popular use in Sicily. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007;3(1):15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-3-15

Ali-Shtayeh MS, Jamous RM, Al-Shafie JH, Elgharabah WA, Kherfan FA, Qarariah KH, et al. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): a comparative study. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2008;4(1):13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-4-13

Martins D, Barros L, Carvalho AM, Ferreira ICFR. Nutritional and in vitro antioxidant properties of edible wild greens in Iberian Peninsula traditional diet. Food Chem. 2011;125(2):488–494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.09.038

Di Tizio A, Łuczaj ŁJ, Quave CL, Redžić S, Pieroni A. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2012;8(1):21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-8-21

Pieroni A. Gathered wild food plants in the upper valley of the Serchio River (Garfagnana), Central Italy. Econ Bot. 1999;53(3):327–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02866645

Pieroni A. Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;70(3):235–273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00207-X

Bonet MA, Vallès J. Use of non-crop food vascular plants in Montseny biosphere reserve (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula). Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2002;53(3):225–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480220132841

Rivera D, Obon C, Inocencio C, Heinrich M, Verde A, Fajardo J, et al. The ethnobotanical study of local Mediterranean food plants as medicinal resources in Southern Spain. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;56 Suppl 1:97–114.

Salvatore S, Pellegrini N, Brenna OV, Del Rio D, Frasca G, Brighenti F, et al. Antioxidant characterization of some Sicilian edible wild greens. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(24):9465–9471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf051806r

Scherrer AM, Motti R, Weckerle CS. Traditional plant use in the areas of Monte Vesole and Ascea, Cilento National Park (Campania, Southern Italy). J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97(1):129–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.11.002

Della A, Paraskeva-Hadjichambi D, Hadjichambis AC. An ethnobotanical survey of wild edible plants of Paphos and Larnaca countryside of Cyprus. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006;2(1):34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-2-34

Nebel S, Pieroni A, Heinrich M. Ta chòrta: wild edible greens used in the Graecanic area in Calabria, Southern Italy. Appetite. 2006;47(3):333–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2006.05.010

Ghirardini M, Carli M, Del Vecchio N, Rovati A, Cova O, Valigi F, et al. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007;3(1):22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-3-22

Pardo-de-Santayana M, Tardío J, Blanco E, Carvalho A, Lastra J, San Miguel E, et al. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal): a comparative study. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007;3(1):27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-3-27

Rivera D, Obón C, Inocencio C, Heinrich M, Verde A, Fajardo J, et al. Gathered food plants in the mountains of Castilla–La Mancha (Spain): ethnobotany and multivariate analysis. Econ Bot. 2007;61(3):269–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2007)61[269:GFPITM]2.0.CO;2

Aberoumand A, Deokule SS. Comparison of phenolic compounds of some edible plants of Iran and India. Pakistan J Nutr. 2008;7(4):582–585.

Nebel S, Heinrich M. Ta chòrta: a comparative ethnobotanical-linguistic study of wild food plants in a Graecanic area in Calabria, Southern Italy. Econ Bot. 2009;63(1):78–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12231-008-9069-9

Mattalia G, Quave CL, Pieroni A. Traditional uses of wild food and medicinal plants among Brigasc, Kyé, and Provençal communities on the Western Italian Alps. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-012-9859-x

Menendez-Baceta G, Aceituno-Mata L, Tardío J, Reyes-García V, Pardo-de-Santayana M. Wild edible plants traditionally gathered in Gorbeialdea (Biscay, Basque Country). Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2012;59(7):1329–1347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-011-9760-z

Sánchez-Mata MC, Cabrera Loera RD, Morales P, Fernández-Ruiz V, Cámara M, Díez Marqués C, et al. Wild vegetables of the Mediterranean area as valuable sources of bioactive compounds. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2012;59(3):431–443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-011-9693-6

Renner SS, Scarborough J, Schaefer H, Paris HS, Janick J. Dioscorides's Bruonia melaina is Bryonia alba, not Tamus communis, and an illustration labeled Bruonia melaina in the Codex Vindobonensis is Humulus lupulus not Bryonia dioica. In: Pitrat M, editor. Cucurbitaceae 2008: proceedings of the IXth EUCARPIA meeting on genetics and breeding of Cucurbitaceae. Avignon: INRA; 2008. p. 273–280.

Polo S, Tardío J, Vélez-del-Burgo A, Molina M, Pardo-de-Santayana M. Knowledge, use and ecology of golden thistle (Scolymus hispanicus L.) in Central Spain. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2009;5(1):42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-5-42

Redzić S. Use of wild and semi-wild edible plants in nutrition and survival of people in 1430 days of siege of Sarajevo during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992–1995). Coll Antropol. 2010;34(2):551–570.

Batal M, Hunter E. Traditional Lebanese recipes based on wild plants: an answer to diet simplification? Food Nutr Bull. 2007;28(2 suppl):303–311.

Gurses O, Artik N. A research on the composition of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Portulaca oleracea L. and Spinacia oleracea L. Gida Dergisi. 1984;9(2):83–87.

Alan R, Padem H. A research on the composition of Rumex crispus L., Atriplex petula L., Polygonum aviculare L., Prangos uechtritzii Boiss. and Tragopogon reticulatus Boiss., used in human nutrition in Erzurum. Turk J Agric For. 1990;14:48–57.

Ayan I, Acar Z, Mut H, Basaran U, Asci O. Morphological, chemical and nutritional properties of forage plants in a natural rangeland in Turkey. Bangladesh J Bot. 2006;35(2):133–142.

Akcin OE, Ozbucak TB. Morphological, anatomical and ecological studies on medicinal and edible plant Malva neglecta Wallr. (Malvaceae). Pak J Biol Sci. 2006;9(14):2716–2719. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2006.2716.2719

Sekeroglu N, Ozkutlu F, Deveci M, Dede O, Yilmaz N. Evaluation of some wild plants aspect of their nutritional values used as vegetable in eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Asian J Plant Sci. 2006;5(2):185–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2006.185.189

Sivga HO, Secmen O. Ethnobotanic survey of Isikli (Carpin), Dagdancik and Tokdemir in Gaziantep, Turkey. IUFS J Biol. 2009;68(1):19–26.

Chalchat JC, Ozcan MM, Figueredo G, Chalard P. The effect of harvest years on chemical composition of essential oil of pickling herb (Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana) leaves used as medicinal plant. Acta Bot Hung. 2011;53(1):73–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/ABot.53.2011.1-2.6

Leonti M, Nebel S, Rivera D, Heinrich M. Wild gathered food plants in the European Mediterranean: a comparative analysis. Econ Bot. 2006;60(2):130–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2006)60[130:WGFPIT]2.0.CO;2

Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in edible wild plants. Biol Res. 2004;37(2):263–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-97602004000200013

Uysal I, Onan S, Karabacak E, Celik S. Ethnobotanical aspects of Kapidag Peninsula (Turkey). Bio Di Con. 2010;3(3):15–22.

Kocyigit M, Ozhatay N. The wild edible and miscellaneous useful plants in Yalova province (northwest Turkey). J Fac Pharm Istanbul. 2009;40:19–29.

Lemordant D. Plantes utiles et toxiques de Tunisie. Fitoterapia. 1977;48:191–214.

Vanzani P, Rossetto M, De Marco V, Sacchetti L, Paoletti MG, Rigo A. Wild mediterranean plants as traditional food: a valuable source of antioxidants. J Food Sci. 2011;76(1):C46–C51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01949.x

Yildirim E, Dursun A, Turan M. Determination of the nutrition contents of the wild plants used as vegetables in Upper Coruh Valley. Turk J Bot. 2001;25:367–371.

Rigat M, Bonet MA, Garcia S, Garnatje T, Vallès J. Ethnobotany of food plants in the high river Ter Valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): non-crop food vascular plants and crop food plants with medicinal properties. Ecol Food Nutr. 2009;48(4):303–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03670240903022320

Dogru Koca A, Yildirimli s. Ethnobotanical properties of Akçakoca District in Düzce (Turkey). Hacettepe J Biol Chem. 2010;38(1):63–69.

Akgunlu SB. Mineral content and microbiological analysis of some wild edible vegetables consumed in Kilis and Gaziantep provinces [Master thesis]. Kilis: Kilis 7 Aralık University; 2012.

Pieroni A. Evaluation of the cultural significance of wild food botanicals traditionally consumed in Northwestren Tuscany, Italy. J Ethnobiol. 2001;21:89–104.

Pieroni A, Giusti M. Alpine ethnobotany in Italy: traditional knowledge of gastronomic and medicinal plants among the Occitans of the upper Varaita valley, Piedmont. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2009;5(1):32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-5-32

Motti R, Antignani V, Idolo M. Traditional plant use in the Phlegraean Fields Regional Park (Campania, Southern Italy). Hum Ecol. 2009;37(6):775–782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10745-009-9254-1

Shafaghat A. Volatile oil constituents and antibacterial activity of different parts of Falcaria vulgaris Bernh. growing wild in two localities from Iran. Nat Prod Res. 2011;25(4):368–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786411003774312

Lev-Yadun S, Abbo S. Traditional use of A'kub (Gundelia tournefortii, Asteraceae), in Israel and the Palestinian Authority area. Econ Bot. 1999;53(2):217–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02866501

Halabi S, Battah AA, Aburjai T, Hudaib M. Phytochemical and antiplatelet investigation of Gundelia tournifortii. Pharm Biol. 2005;43(6):496–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880200500220268

Coruh N, Sagdicoglu Celep AG, Ozgokce F, Iscan M. Antioxidant capacities of Gundelia tournefortii L. extracts and inhibition on glutathione-S-transferase activity. Food Chem. 2007;100(3):1249–1253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.12.008

Tardio J, Pardo-de-Santayana M. Cultural importance indices: a comparative analysis based on the useful wild plants of Southern Cantabria (Northern Spain). Econ Bot. 2008;62(1):24–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12231-007-9004-5

Razavi SM, Zarrini G, Molavi G, Ghader G. Bioactivity of Malva sylvestris L., a medicinal plant from Iran. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2011;14(6):574–579.

Pardo-De-Santayana M, Tardio J, Morales R. The gathering and consumption of wild edible plants in the Campoo (Cantabria, Spain). Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005;56(7):529–542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480500490731

Gencay A. Ethnobotanical aspects of Cizre (Sirnak) [Master thesis]. Van: Yuzuncu Yil Universitesi; 2007.

Ayan AK, Caliskan O, Cirak C. Economical importance of stinging nettle (Urtica spp.) and its cultivation. J Fac Agric OMU. 2006;21(3):357–363.