Notes on some Phytopythium and Pythium species occurring in oak forests in southern Poland

Robert Jankowiak, Hanna Stępniewska, Piotr Bilański

Abstract


Phytopythium and Pythium species are known to be soil-born oomycete pathogens of forest trees in Europe. Little is known, however, about the presence of these micro-organisms in Polish oak forests. During the period 2007–2009 a comprehensive study of Phytophthora species in soils of oak forests in southern Poland was conducted using baiting technique. In this study, baits were also colonized by oomycete resembling Pythium species. Based on morphological characteristics and the ITS sequences comparisons, 10 species of Phytopythium and Pythium were isolated from the soil-root samples, including three putative new species belonging to the genus of Phytopythium. The most commonly encountered Pythium species was Pythium anandrum. The present study demonstrates for the first time that Phytopythium citrinum and Pythium diclinum can also act as soil-borne organisms in oak forests. In addition, these species were reported for the first time in Poland.


Keywords


Quercus robur; oomycetes; soil; Phytopythium; Pythium

Full Text:

PDF

References


Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Staplers JA. Ainsworth & Bisby’s dictionary of the fungi. 10th ed. Wallingford: CAB International; 2008.

Webster J, Weber RWS. Introduction to fungi. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511809026

Weber RWS, Sulzer FL, Haarhaus M. Pythium undulatum, cause of root rot of Abies procera Christmas trees and Pseudotsuga menziesii in northern Germany. Mycol Prog. 2004;3(3):179–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11557-006-0087-7

van der Plaats-Niterink AJ. Monograph of the genus Pythium. Baarn: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures; 1981. (Studies in Mycology; vol 21).

Lévesque CA, de Cock AW. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Pythium. Mycol Res. 2004;108:1363–1383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0953756204001431

Robideau GP, de Cock AW, Coffey MD, Voglmayr H, Brouwer H, Bala K, et al. DNA barcoding of oomycetes with cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and internal transcribed spacer. Mol Ecol Resour. 2011;11(6):1002–1011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2011.03041.x

Uzuhashi S, Tojo M, Kakishima M. Phylogeny of the genus Pythium and description of new genera. Mycoscience. 2010;51:337–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S10267-010-0046-7

Bala K, Robideau GP, Levésque CA, de Cook AW, Abad ZG, Lodhi AM, et al. Phytopythium sindhum. Persoonia. 2010;24:136–137.

de Cock AWAM, Lodhi AM, Rintoul TL, Bala K, Robideau GP, Gloria Abad Z, et al. Phytopythium: molecular phylogeny and systematics. Persoonia. 2015;34:25–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.3767/003158515X685382

Jung T, Blaschke H, Oßwald W. Involvement of soilborne Phythophthora species in Central European oak decline and the effect of site factors on the disease. Plant Pathol. 2000;49:706–718. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.2000.00521.x

Balcì Y, Halmschlager E. Incidence of Phytophthora species in oak forests in Austria and their possible involvement in oak decline. For Pathol. 2003;33:157–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0329.2003.00318.x

Balcì Y, Halmschlager E. Phytophthora species in oak ecosystems in Turkey and their association with declining oak trees. Plant Pathol. 2003;52:694–702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2003.00919.x

Jönsson U, Lundberg L, Sonesson K, Jung T. First records of soilborne Phytophthora species in Swedish oak forests. For Pathol. 2003;33:175–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0329.2003.00320.x

Cordier T, Belbahri L, Calmin G, Oszako T, Nowakowska J, Lefort F. Emerging Phytophthora and Pythium species in Polish declining forests. Established and emerging Phytophthora: increasing threats to woodland and forest ecosystems in Europe. First working groups meeting, 16–19 April 2009, Nový Smokovec, Slovakia; 2009.

Jankowiak R, Stępniewska H, Bilański P, Kolařík M. Occurrence of Phytophthora plurivora and other Phytophthora species in oaks forests of southern Poland and their association with site conditions and the health status of trees. Folia Microbiol. 2014;59:531–542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12223-014-0331-5

Jung T, Blaschke H, Neumann P. Isolation, identification and pathogenicity of Phytophthora species from declining oak stands. Eur J Forest Pathol. 1996;26:253–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.1996.tb00846.x

Kröber H. Erfahrungen mit Phytophthora de Bary und Pythium Pringsheim. Berlin: P. Parey; 1985. (Mitteilungen der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft; vol 225).

Gardes M, Bruns TD. ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes: application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Mol Ecol. 1993;2:113–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.1993.tb00005.x

Hubka V, Kolaŕík M. β-tubulin paralogue tubC is frequently misidentified as the benA gene in Aspergillus section Nigri taxonomy: primer specificity testing and taxonomic consequences. Persoonia. 2012;29:1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.3767/003158512X658123

Katoh K, Toh H. Recent developments in the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. Brief Bioinform. 2008;9:286–298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbn013

Posada D. jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:1253–1256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msn083

Guindon S, Dufayard JF, Lefort V, Anisimova M, Hordijk W, Gascuel O. New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0. Syst Biol. 2010;59:307–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syq010

Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP. MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics. 2003;19:1572–1574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180

Rambaut A, Drummond AJ. Tracer v1.4 [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2015 Jul 4]; Available from: http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk/Tracer

Shafizadeh S, Kavanagh JA. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora species and Pythium undulatum isolated from Abies procera Christmas trees in Ireland. Forest Pathol. 2005;35:444–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2005.00430.x

Vettraino AM, Barzanti GP, Bianco MC, Ragazzi A, Capretti P, Paoletti E. Occurrence of Phytophthora species in oak stands in Italy and their association with declining oak trees. Forest Pathol. 2002;32:19–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0329.2002.00264.x

Jönsson U, Jung T, Sonesson K, Rosengren U. Relationships between health of Quercus robur, occurrence of Phytophthora species and site conditions in southern Sweden. Plant Pathol. 2005;54:502–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01228.x