Autoallelopathic and Allelopathic Influence of Aqueous Winter-Cereal Extracts

Messias de Carvalho, Wiktor Halecki, Katarzyna Możdżeń, Agnieszka Synowiec


The present study aimed to assess the allelopathic potential of four cereals: winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.), spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through a completely randomized (CR) design. The allelopathic effects of water extracts of different parts of the cereal plants (stem, leaf, and spike) at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 4.0%) were evaluated on the seed germination and seedling growth. The germination rate, length, and dry weight of the shoot and root of the seedlings were measured. Ferulic acid was detected in all the cereals. The water extracts at 2.0% and 4.0% concentration had an allelopathic effect on the germination rate, shoot and root length of seedlings of spelt wheat, barley, and triticale, and the stem and leaf extracts affected the root and shoot length of winter wheat. The allelopathic effect of the dried powder of the cereals were evaluated in pot experiments. Both spelt wheat and triticale powder treatment at elevated CO2 levels increased the dry weight of the root, as well as the length of the shoot and root of winter wheat. Furthermore, treatment with 4.0 g of dry cereal powder combined with an elevated level of CO2 increased the shoot length, whereas the root length of winter wheat was unaffected. In summary, the combination of dry cereal powder with elevated CO2 stimulates the initial growth of winter wheat.


seedling; dry weight; ferulic acid; cereal; allelopathy; autoallelopathy

Full Text:



Ahmad, Z., Khan, K. R., Farooq, M., Shah, A. H., Mehmood, A., Jabeen, T., & Zohra, L. (2020). Evaluation of allelopathic potential of agricultural land associated trees on germination attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 10(2), 38–44.

Ahmed, R., Hoque, A. T. M. R., & Hossain, M. K. (2008). Allelopathic effects of leaf litters of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on some forest and agricultural crops. Journal of Forestry Research, 19, 19–24.

Amb, M. K., & Ahluwalia, A. (2016). Allelopathy: Potential role to achieve new milestones in rice cultivation. Rice Science, 23, 165–183.

Boutigny, A. L., Richard-Forget, F., & Barreau, C. (2008). Natural mechanisms for cereal resistance to the accumulation of Fusarium trichothecenes. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 121, 411–423.

Cheng, F., & Cheng, Z. (2015). Research progress on the use of plant allelopathy in agriculture and the physiological and ecological mechanisms of allelopathy. Frontiers in Plant Science, 6, Article 1020.

Chomel, M., Guittonny-Larchevêque, M., Fernandez, C., Gallet, C., & Baldy, V. (2016). Plant secondary metabolites: A key driver of litter decomposition and soil nutrient cycling. Journal of Ecology, 104(6), 1527–1541.

El Beheiry, M. A., El Fahar, R. A., Tahoun, E. M., & Abd Elhaak, M. A. (2019). Mitigation of wheat seedlings to the allelopathic effect of Malva parviflora and Rumex dentatus weeds. Egyptian Journal of Experimental Biology (Botany), 15(2), 269–282.

Farooq, N., Abbas, T., Tanveer, A., & Jabran, K. (2020). Allelopathy for weed management. In J. M. Mérillon & K. Ramawat (Eds.), Co-evolution of secondary metabolites (pp. 505–519). Springer.

Fatholahi, S., Karimmojeni, H., & Ehsanzadeh, P. (2020). Phenolic compounds and allelopathic activities of ancient emmer wheats: Perspective for non-chemical weed control scenarios. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 42(8), Article 135.

Feng, Y., Hu, Y., Wu, J., Chen, J., Yrjala, K., & Yu, W. (2019). Change in microbial communities, soil enzyme and metabolic activity in a Torreya grandis plantation in response to root rot disease. Forest Ecology and Management, 432, 932–941.

Fernandez, C., Monnier, Y., Santonja, M., Gallet, C., Weston, L. A., Prévosto, B., Saunier, A., Baldy, V., & Bousquet-Mélou, A. (2016). The impact of competition and allelopathy on the trade-off between plant defense and growth in two contrasting tree species. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, Article 594.

Gaba, S., Alignier, A., Aviron, S., Barot, S., Blouin, M., Hedde, M., Jabot, F., Vergnes, A., Bonis, A., Bonthoux, S., Bourgeois, B., Bretagnolle, V., Catarino, R., Coux, C., Gardarin, A., Giffard, B., Le Gal, A., Lecomte, J., Miguet, P., ... Couvet, D. (2018). Ecology for sustainable and multifunctional agriculture. Springer.

Geiger, M., Haake, V., Ludewig, F., Sonewald, U., & Stitt, M. (1999). The nitrate and ammonium nitrate supply have a major influence on the response of photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and growth to elevated carbon dioxide in tobacco. Plant, Cell and Environment, 22, 1177–1199.

Georgieva, N. (2019). Allelopathic tolerance in white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) accessions to Sorghum halepense extracts. Journal of BioScience and Biotechnology, 8(1), 51–58.

Jabran, K. (2017). Manipulation of allelopathic crops for weed control. Springer.

Jalali, I., Abbas, S. H. A. H., Farooq, M., Jabeen, T., Khan, K. R., & Zohra, L. (2020). Assessment of allelopathic prospective of agriculture land trees on morphological and yield attributes of wheat varieties of Pakistan. Journal of Agriculture Science, 35(2), 45–50.

Karami, F., & Akhzari, D. (2020). Studying the interaction effects of allelopathy and salinity stresses on physiological traits and nutrient uptake in Poa bulbosa L. treated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. ECOPERSIA, 8(3), 139–146.

Korotkova, I., Marenych, M., Hanhur, V., Laslo, O., Chetveryk, O., & Liashenko, V. (2021). Weed control and winter wheat crop yield with the application of herbicides, nitrogen fertilizers, and their mixtures with humic growth regulators. Acta Agrobotanica, 74(1), Article 748.

Lichtenthaler, H. K., & Babani, F. (2004). Light adaptation and senescence of the photosynthetic apparatus. Changes in pigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic activity. In G. C. Papageorgiou & Govindjee (Eds.), Chlorophyll a fluorescence (pp. 713–736). Springer.

Mitić, N., Stanišić, M., Savić, J., Ćosić, T., Stanisavljević, N., Miljuš-Đukić, J., Marin, M., Radović, S., & Ninković, S. (2018). Physiological and cell ultrastructure disturbances in wheat seedlings generated by Chenopodium murale hairy root exudate. Protoplasma, 255(6), 1683–1692.

Ndolo, V. U., & Beta, T. (2014). Comparative studies on composition and distribution of phenolic acids in cereal grain botanical fractions. Cereal Chemistry, 91, 522–530.

Oraon, S., & Mondal, S. (2021). Allelopathic effect of lamiaceous weeds on seed germination and early growth of aromatic rice (Oryza sativa ‘Gobindobhog’). Acta Agrobotanica, 74(1), Article 741.

Pihlava, J.-M., Nordlund, E., Heiniö, R.-L., Hietaniemi, V., Lehtinen, P., & Poutanen, K. (2015). Phenolic compounds in wholegrain rye and its fractions. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 38, 89–97.

Reddy, A. R., Rasineni, G. K., & Raghavendra, A. S. (2010). The impact of global elevated CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and plant productivity. Current Science, 99(1), 46–57.

Rogers, H. H., Prior, S. A., Runion, G. B., & Mitchell, R. J. (1995). Root to shoot ratio of crops as influenced by CO2. Plant and Soil, 187, 229–248.

Seneweera, S. (2011). Effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth and nutrient partitioning of rice (Oryza sativa L.) at rapid tillering and physiological maturity. Journal of Plant Interactions, 6(1), 35–42.

Shahrajabian, M. H., Khoshkharam, M., Sun, W., & Cheng, Q. (2019). Germination and seedlings growth of corn (Zea mays L.) to allelopathic effects of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Tropical Plant Research, 6(1), 152–156.

Shekoofa, A., Safikhan, S., Raper, T. B., & Butler, S. A. (2020). Allelopathic impacts of cover crop species and termination timing on cotton germination and seedling growth. Agronomy, 10(5), Article 638.

Sidʹko, A. F., Botvich, I. Y., & Pisʹman, T. I. (2017). Stimulation of the chlorophyll content and yield of grain crops via their chlorophyll potential. Biophysics, 62, 456–459.

Singh, N. B., Amit, S., & Deepmala, S. (2010). Autotoxicity of maize and its mitigation by plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Paenibacillus Polymyxa. Allelopathy Journal, 1, 195–204.

Sołtys, D., Dębska, K., Bogatek, R., & Gniazdowska, A. (2010). Autotoksyczność roślin jako przykład oddziaływań allelopatycznych [Plant autotoxicity – An example of allelopathic interaction]. Kosmos, 59(3–4), 551–566.

Wang, X., Peter, S., Liu, Z., Armstrong, R., Rochfort, S., & Tang, C. (2019). Allelopathic effects account for the inhibitory effect of field-pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoots on wheat growth in dense clay subsoils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 55(7), 649–659.

Wardle, D. A., Bardgett, R. D., Klironomos, J. N., Heikki, S. L., Putten, W. H. V. D., & Wall, D. H. (2004). Ecological linkages between aboveground and below ground biota. Science, 304, 1629–1633.

Wu, R., Wu, B., Cheng, H., Wang, S., Wei, M., & Wang, C. (2020). Drought enhanced the allelopathy of goldenrod on the seed germination and seedling growth performance of lettuce. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 30(1), 423–432.

Yagi, K., & Ohishi, N. (1979). Action of ferulic acid and its derivatives as antioxidants. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 25(2), 127–130.

Yang, L., Wang, P., & Kong, C. (2010). Effect of larch (Larix gmelini Rupr.) root exudates on Mancharian walnut (Juglans mandshurica Maxim.) growth and soil juglone in a mixed-species plantation. Plant and Soil, 329, 249–258.

Yu, J. G. (2001). Autotoxic potential of cucurbic crops: Phenomenon, chemicals, mechanisms and means to overcome. Journal of Crop Production, 4(2), 335–348.


Journal ISSN:
  • 2300-357X (online)
  • 0065-0951 (print; ceased since 2016)
This is an Open Access journal, which distributes its content under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, provided that the content is properly cited.
The journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and aims to follow the COPE’s principles.
The journal publisher is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association.
The journal content is indexed in Similarity Check, the Crossref initiative to prevent scholarly and professional plagiarism.
Polish Botanical Society