Occurrence of Weeds in an Orchard due to Cultivation of Long-Term Perennial Living Mulches

Maria Licznar-Małańczuk

Abstract


The living mulch permanence along with the succession of their weed infestation in an apple orchard were evaluated at the Research Station, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences. The perennial cover crops: white clover and colonial bent grass, as well as the annual dwarf nasturtium, were sown as living mulches in apple tree rows, in the year of establishing the orchard. Blue fescue was sown one year later to replace the dwarf nasturtium. The percent of covers and temporal dominance dynamics of weeds were estimated during the first 13 years of the orchard maintenance. The occurrence of annual weeds, which had been abundant in all the living mulches in the year of their sowing, decreased in the following years of orchard maintenance. Conversely, the dominance of several perennial weed species increased as the orchard reached the full cropping period. White clover exhibited the lowest permanence. Dynamic spreading of Elymus repens (L.) Gould and other species from the Poaceae family was the direct cause of this cover crop disappearance. The presence of perennial dicotyledonous weeds, primarily Taraxacum officinale Web. and Convolvulus arvensis L., also contributed to the diminished sod of all the living mulches. Blue fescue maintained satisfactory dominance relative to colonial bent grass for nearly the entire first decade of the research. Nevertheless, both grass living mulches were present on less than half of the tree row soil surface area, in the thirteenth year after planting of the apple trees.

Keywords


cover crop; fescue; colonial bent; clover; apple tree

Full Text:

PDF XML (JATS)

References


Andersen, L., Kühn, B. F., Bertelsen, M., Bruus, M., Larsen, S. E., & Strandberg, M. (2013). Alternatives to herbicides in an apple orchard, effects on yield, earthworms and plant diversity. Agriculture Ecosystems and Enviroment, 172(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.04.004

Belding, R. D., Majek, B. A., Lokaj, G. R. W., Hammerstedt, J., & Ayeni, A. O. (2004). Orchard floor management influence on summer annual weeds and young peach tree performance. Weed Technology, 18(2), 215–222. https://doi.org/10.1614/WT02-180

Bond, W., & Grundy, A. C. (2001). Non-chemical weed management in organic farming systems. Weed Research, 41(5), 383–405. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365- 3180.2001.00246.x

Cucci, G., Lacolla, G., Crecchio, C., Pascazio, S., & Giorgio, D. (2016). Impact of long term soil management practices on the fertility and weed flora of an almond orchard. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 40, 194–202. https://doi.org/10.3906/tar-1502-87

den Hollander, N., Bastiaans, L., & Kropff, M. J. (2007a). Clover as a cover crop for weed suppression in an intercropping design. I. Characteristics of several clover species. European Journal of Agronomy, 26(2), 92–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2006.08.011

den Hollander, N., Bastiaans, L., & Kropff, M. J. (2007b). Clover as a cover crop for weed suppression in an intercropping design. II. Competitive ability of several clover species. European Journal of Agronomy, 26(2), 104–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2006.08.005

Erhardt, W., Götz, E., Bödeker, N., & Seybold, S. (2008). Der große Zander Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen 2: Arten und Sorten [Zander great encyclopedic of the plant names. 2. Genus and species]. Ulmer KG.

Granatstein, D., & Mullinix, K. (2008). Mulching options for northwest organic and conventional orchards. HortScience, 43(1), 45–50. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.43.1.45

Granatstein, D., & Sánchez, E. (2009). Research knowledge and needs for orchard floor management in organic tree fruit systems. International Journal of Fruit Science, 9(3), 257–281. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538360903245212

Hartley, M., Rahman, A., Harrington, K., & James, T. (2000). Assessing ground covers in a newly planted apple orchard. New Zealand Plant Protection, 53, 22–27. https://doi.org/10.30843/nzpp.2000.53.3643

Hogue, E. J., Cline, J. A., Neilsen, G., & Neilsen, D. (2010). Growth and yield responses to mulches and cover crops under low potassium conditions in drip-irrigated apple orchards on coarse soils. HortScience, 45(12), 1866–1871. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.45.12.1866

Kropff, M. J., & Walter, H. (2000). EWRS and the challenges for weed research at the start of a new millennium. Weed Research, 40(1), 7–10. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365- 3180.2000.00166.x

Licznar-Małańczuk, M. (2012). Zastosowanie żywych ściółek w sadzie jako alternatywnego sposobu pielęgnacji gleby w porównaniu z ugorem herbicydowym [Application of living mulches in apple tree rows as an alternative method of orchard floor management in comparison to herbicide fallow]. Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu.

Licznar-Małańczuk, M. (2014). The diversity of weed species occurring in living mulch in an apple orchard. Acta Agrobotanica, 67(1), 47–54. https://doi.org/10.5586/aa.2014.001

Licznar-Małańczuk, M. (2015). Suitability of blue fescue (Festuca ovina L.) as living mulch in an apple orchard – preliminary evaluation. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Hortorum Cultus, 14(6), 163–174.

Linares, J., Scholberg, J., Boote, K., Chase, C. A., Ferguson, J. J., & McSorley, R. (2008). Use of the cover crop weed index to evaluate weed suppression by cover crops in organic citrus orchards. HortScience, 43(1), 27–34. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.43.1.27

Lipecki, J., & Janisz, A. (2000). Rozmieszczenie przestrzenne oraz zmiany w występowaniu niektórych gatunków chwastów w sadzie jabłoniowym Gospodarstwa Doświadczalnego Felin koło Lublina [Spatial distribution and changes in occurrence of some weeds species in the orchard in AES Felin near Lublin]. Acta Agrobotanica, 53(2), 85–104. https://doi.org/10.5586/aa.2000.018

Lipecki, J., & Janisz, A. (2001). Wpływ roślin okrywowych na zachwaszczenie sadu [The effect of living mulch on weeds in the apple orchard]. Materiały XVIII Spotkania Zespołu Herbologicznego Komitetu Nauk Ogrodniczych PAN [Proceedings of 17th Herbological Workshop Group Meeting, Committee on Horticultural Sciences PAS] (pp. 30–35). Akademia Rolnicza w Lublinie.

Lisek, J. (2012). Synanthropic orchard flora in West Mazovia – central Poland. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 20(2), 71–83. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10290-012- 0017-5

Lisek, J. (2014). Possibilities and limitations of weed management in fruit crops of the temperate climate zone. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 54(4), 318–326. https://doi.org/10.2478/jppr-2014-0048

Marshall, E. J. P. (1990). Interference between sown grasses and the growth of rhizome of Elymus repens (couch grass). Agriculture Ecosystems and Enviroment, 33(1), 11–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8809(90)90140-9

Mas, M. T., Poggio, S. L., & Verdú, A. M. C. (2007). Weed community structure of mandarin orchards under conventional and integrated management in northern Spain. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 119(3–4), 305–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.07.016

Ross, S. M., King, J. R., Izaurralde, R. C., & O’Donovan, J. T. (2001). Weed suppression by seven clover species. Agronomy Journal, 93(4), 820–827. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2001.934820x

Shem-Tov, S., & Fennimore, S. A. (2003). Seasonal changes in annual bluegrass (Poa annua) germinability and emergence. Weed Science, 51(5), 690–695. http://doi.org/fb3qr4

Teasdale, J. R., Brandsæter, L. O., Calegari, A., & Neto, F. S. (2007). Cover crop and weed management. In M. K. Upadhyaya & R. E. Blackshaw (Eds.), Non-chemical weed management. Principles, concepts and technology (pp. 49–64). CABI. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2008.0006br

Tebeau, A. S., Alston, D. G., Ransom, C. V., Black, B. L., Reeve, J. R., & Culumber, C. M. (2017). Effects of floor vegetation and fertility management on weed biomass and diversity in organic peach orchards. Weed Technology, 31(3), 404–415. https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2017.32

Tran, H., Harrington, K. C., Ghanizadeh, H., Robertson, A. W., & Watt, M. S. (2018). Suppression by three grass species of broom seedling emergence and survival. New Zealand Plant Protection, 71, 57–65. https://doi.org/10.30843/nzpp.2018.71.142

Tursun, N., Işık, D., Demir, Z., & Jabran, K. (2018). Use of living, mowed, and soil incorporated cover crops for weed control in apricot orchards. Agronomy, 8(8), Article 150. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8080150

Tworkoski, T. J., & Glenn, D. M. (2012). Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management. Weed Technology, 26(3), 559–565. https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-11-00044.1

Wallinga, J., Kropff, M. J., & Rew, L. J. (2002). Patterns of spread of annual weeds. Basic and Applied Ecology, 3(1), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.1078/1439-1791-00074

Wang, J., Kropff, M. J., Lammert, B., Christensen, S., & Hansen, P. K. (2003). Using CA model to obtain insight into mechanism of plant population spread in a controllable system: Annual weeds as an example. Ecological Modelling, 166(3), 277–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(03)00164-9