Biology of flowering and nectar production in the flowers of the beauty bush (Kolkwitzia amabilis Graebn.)

Marta Dmitruk


Nectar production and the morphology of the nectary and pollen grains of Kolwitzia amabilis Graebn. were studied during the period 2008–2009 and in 2011. The blooming of beauty bush flowers started in the third decade of May and ended in the middle of June; flowering lasted 22–23 days. The flower life span was 4–5 days. Nectar production began at the bud break stage. The tube of the corolla in beauty bush flowers forms a spur inside which the nectary is located. The secretory surface of the nectary consists of two layers of glandular epidermal outgrowths: unicellular trichomes, with their length ranging 54.6 μm – 70.2 μm, and papillae with a length of 13.0 μm – 20.6 μm. The mean weight of nectar per 10 flowers, determined for the three years of the study, was 8.6 mg, with a sugar concentration of 50.8%. The weight of nectar sugar was on average 4.4 mg. In terms of the size, beauty bush pollen grains are classified as medium-sized. These are tricolporate grains.


nectar; morphology; nectar production; pollen morphology; Kolkwitzia amabilis Graebn

Full Text:



Bożek M., Wieniarska J. 2006. Biologia kwitnienia i wydajność cukrowa kwiatów dwóch odmian Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast.) Pojark./ Biology of flowering and sugar yield of flowers of two varieties of Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast.) Pojark. Acta Agrobot. 59 (1): 177–182. (in Polish)

Hillebrand G.R., Fairbrothers D.E. 1970. Phytoserological systematic survey of the Caprifoliaceae. Brittonia 22: 125–133.

Górska-Zajączkowska M. 1983. Rytmika rozwojowa Kolkwitzia amabilis Graebn. w Ogrodzie Botanicznym UAM w Poznaniu./ The growth cycle of Kolkwitzia amabilis Graebn. in the Botanical Garden of the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. Wiad. Bot. 27(2): 131–156. (in Polish)

Kołtowski Z. 2006. Wielki atlas roślin miododajnych. PWRZ SA, Warszawa. (in Polish)

Jabłoński B., Szklanowska K. 1979. Propozycje zmiany metody badań nektarowania roślin./ Proposals for changes in methods of research on nectar production in plants. Pszczeln. Zesz. Nauk. 23: 105–113. (in Polish)

Jabłoński B., Kołtowski Z. 1993. Nektarowanie i wydajność miodowa roślin miododajnych w warunkach Polski. Część VIII./ Nectar production and honey yield of melliferous plants under Polish conditions. Part VIII. Pszczeln. Zesz.Nauk. 37: 81–87. (in Polish)

Maciejewska I. 1997. Pollen morphology of the polish species of the family Caprifoliaceae. Part 2. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 66 (2): 143–144.

Maciejewska I. 1999. Notes on fruit development and fruit type of Kolkwitzia amabilis Graebn. Rocz. Dendrol. 47: 77–83.

Pacini E., Nepi M. 2007. Nectar production and presentation. [In:] Nectaries and nectar. S.W. Nicolson, M. Nepi., E. Pacini (eds), Springer, Dordrecht.

Seneta W. 1983. Dendrologia. PWN, Warszawa. (in Polish)

Smets E. 1986. Localization and systematic importance of the floral nectaries in the Magnoliatae (Dicotyledonos). Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 56: 51–76.

Szklanowska K. 1978. Nektarowanie i wydajność miodowa niektórych drzew i krzewów w warunkach Polski./ Nectar production and honey yield of some trees and shrubs under Polish conditions. Pszczeln. Zesz. Nauk. 22: 117–127. (in Polish)

Weryszko-Chmielewska E., Bożek M. 2008. Structure of trichomatous nectries in flowers of Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevat.) Pojark. Acta Agrobot. 61 (1): 13–26.