Botanical analysis of fallow grasslands existing in mountain conditions

Adam Radkowski, Beata Barabasz-Krasny

Abstract


The investigations were carried out in the years 2000- -2004 on permanent grassland in Czarny Potok (Beskidy Mts. - 650 a. s. l.). Botanical census was conducted by using Klapp's method on 26 plots (18 random selected plots and 8 controls). The whole floristic material was subjected to numerical classification. As a result, three main types of plots with the dominating species of: Juncus effusus (1), Cirsium arvense (2) and Deschampsia caespitosa (3), were distinguished. Poa trivialis was the dominating species of the control plots. Results of the floristic and habitat analysis confirmed that the main factors determining the formation of meadow and pasture communities are as follows: the method of use, water relations and soil nutrient availability. It was found that idle glades are characterised by degraded sward of the average (the sward patches with the domination of Deschampsia caespitosa) or low use value (the swards patches with the domination of Cirsium arvense and Juncus effusus). The deterioration of the feeding value of the fallow plots is an effect of their high weed infestation, which in turn results, in this case, from habitat changes as a consequence of the cessation of use and earlier errors made in cultivation measures. Both high and low soil moisture, with improper meadow management, accelerated the weed infestation of the sward, what in turn lowers its use value. Cutting and fertilisation positively affect the use value of plant habitats, what was confirmed by the botanical and habitat analysis of the control plots with the domination of Poa trivialis, which is known to be of good use value.

Keywords


fallow areas; botanical composition; habitat; degradation of mountain pastures

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