Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae)

Aneta Sulborska


Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems), whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm) and width (32–35 μm) than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm). Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes) or 6–9 (stalk trichomes) cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts). Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6) were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids) and brow colour (presence of polyphenols) in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.


external secretory tissue; trichomes; Inula helenium; Asteraceae

Full Text:



Szweykowska A, Szweykowski J. Słownik Botaniczny. Wiedza Powszechna, Warszawa; 2003. (in Polish)

Lewkowicz-Mosiej T. Leksykon roślin leczniczych. Świat Książki, Warszawa; 2003. (in Polish)

Fahn A. Secretory tissues in vascular plants. New Phytol. 1988; 108: 229–257.

Fahn A. Secretory tissues and factors influencing their development. Phyton. 1988; 28(1): 13–26.

Fahn A. Structure and function of secretory cells. Adv Bot Res. 2000; 31: 37–75.

Kim E-S, Mahlberg P.G. Secretory cavity development in glandular trichomes of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae)., Amer. J. Bot. 1991; 78(2): 220–229.

Duke MV, Paul RN, Elsohly HN, Sturtz G, Duke SO. Lokalization of artemisinin and artemisitene in foliar tissues of glanded and glandless biotypes of Artemisia annua L. Int J Plant Sci. 1994; 155(3): 365–372.

Werker E, Putievsky E, Ravid U, Dudai N, Katzir I. Glandular hairs, secretory cavities, and the essential oil in leaves of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.). J Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants. 1994; 2(3): 19–32.

Werker E, Fahn A. Secretory hairs of Inula viscosa (L.) AIT. Development, ultrastructure, and secretion. Bot Gaz. 1981; 142(4): 461–476.

Afolayan AJ., Meyer JJM. Morphology and ultrastructure of secreting and nonsecreting foliar trichomes of Helichrysum aureonitens (Asteraceae). Int J Plant Sci. 1995; 156(4): 481–487.

Ascensão L, Silva JAT, Barroso JG, Figueiredo AC, Pedro LG. Glandular trichomes and essential oils of Helichrysum stoechas. Israel J Plant Sci. 2001; 49: 115–122.

Bondarev NI, Sukhanova MA, Semenova GA, Goryaeva OV, Andreeva SE, Nosov AM. Morphology and ultrastructure of trichomes of intact and in vitro plants of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni with reference to biosynthesis and accumulation of steviol glycosides. Moscow Univ Biol Sci Bull. 2010; 65(1): 12–16.

Vermeer J, Peterson RL. Glandular trichomes on the inflorescence of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dramatic (Compositae). I. Development and morphology. Can J Bot. 1979 a; 57: 705–713.

Vermeer J, Peterson RL. Glandular trichomes on the inflorescence of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dramatic (Compositae). II. Ultrastructure and histochemistry. Can J Bot. 1979 b; 57: 714:729

Ascensão L, Pais MS. Secretory trichomes from Artemisia crithmifolia: some ultrastructural aspects. Bull Soc Bot Fr. 1982: 129(1): 83–87.

Ascensão L., Pais M. S.S. Glandular trichomes of Artemisia campestris (ssp. maritima): ontogeny and histochemistry of the secretory product. Bot Gaz. 1987; 148(2): 221–227.

Duke SO, Paul RN. Development and fine structure of the glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. Int J Plant Sci. 1993; 154(1): 107–118.

Cornara L, Bononi M, Tateo F, Serrato-Valenti G., Mariotti M.G. Trichomes on vegetative and reproductive organs of Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae). Structure and secretory products. Plant Biosyst. 2001; 135(1): 25–37.

Heinrich G., Pfeifhofer H. W., Stabentheiner E, Sawidis T. Glandular hairs Sigesbeckia jorullensis Kunth (Asteraceae): morphology, histochemistry and composition of essential oil. Ann Bot. 2002; 89: 459–469.

Sulborska A. Micromorphology of flowers, anatomy and ultrastructure of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rausch. (Asteraceae) nectary. Acta Agrobot. 2011; 64(4):23–34.

Milan P, Hayashi AH, Appezzato-da-Glória B. Comparative leaf morphology and anatomy of three Asteraceae species. Braz Arch Biol Techn. 2006; 49(1): 135–144.

Ramayya N. Models of development in the trichomes of Compositae. Curr Sci. 1963; 32(1):27–28.

Metcalfe CR, Chalk L. Anatomy of the Dicotyledons. V. II. Oxford at the Clarendon Press; 1957.

Carlquist S. Structure and ontogeny of glandular trichomes of Madinae (Compositae). Amer J Bot. 1958; 45: 657–682.

Ferreira JFS, Janick J. Floral morphology of Artemisia annua with special reference to trichomes. Int. J Plant Sci. 1995; 156(6): 807–815.

Spring O. Chemataxonomy based on matabolities from glandular trichomes. Adv Bot Res. 2000; 31: 153–174.

Uphof JCT, Hummel K. Plant hairs. Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie. Bd. IV, Tl. 5. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin; 1962.

Wagner GJ. Secreting glandular trichomes: more than just hairs. Plant Physiol. 1990; 96: 675–679.

Kołdowski M, Wysocka-Rumińska A, Tałałaj S, Wiszniewski J. Rośliny olejkowe i olejki naturalne. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne, Warszawa; 1955. (in Polish)

Figueiredo AC, Pais MS. Ultrastructural aspects of glandular cells from the secretory trichomes and from the cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium. Ann Bot. 1994; 74: 179–190.

Kelsey R.G., Shafizadeh F. Glandular trichomes and sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia nova (Asteraceae). Bioch Syst Ecol. 1980; 8: 371–377.

Spring O, Bienert U. Capitate glandular hairs from sunflower leaves: development, distribution and sesquiterpene lactone content. J Plant Physiol. 1987; 130: 441–448.

Corsi G. Nencioni S. Secretory sructures in Artemisia nitida Bertol. (Asteraceae). Israel J Plant Sci. 1995; 43: 359–365.

Nikolaki A, Christodulakis NS. Leaf structure and cytochemical investigation of secretory tissues in Inula viscosa. Bot J Linnean Society. 2004; 144: 437–448.

Rumińska A. Ilościowe i morfologiczne zmiany gruczołków olejkowych w ciągu rozwoju koszyczków kwiatowych Achillea millefolium L. Acta Agrobot. 1966; XVIII: 5–18. (in Polish)


Journal ISSN:
  • 2300-357X (online)
  • 0065-0951 (print; ceased since 2016)
This is an Open Access journal, which distributes its content under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, provided that the content is properly cited.
The journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and aims to follow the COPE’s principles.
The journal publisher is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association.
The journal content is indexed in Similarity Check, the Crossref initiative to prevent scholarly and professional plagiarism.
Polish Botanical Society