Rdza źdźbłowa (Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola Urban), jej gospodarze i szkodliwość w uprawie traw na nasiona [Stem rust (Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola Urban) its hosts and harmfulness in grasses grown for seed]

Maria Prończuk

Abstract


Stem rust development on four species of grasses was studied in field experiments conducted at Radzików in 1997–2001. Population of Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola from different hosts was characterised and their harmfulness for grass grown for seed was estimated. The materials for study were ecotypes and strains of Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra, Poa pratensis and Deschampsia caespitosa collected in breeding nursery and cultivars and strains of L. perenne, F. rubra, P. pratensis cultivated for seed. It was found that the changes in environmental conditions during last years influenced earlier occurrence of stem rust on grasses in Poland. All examined species were the host of P. graminis ssp. graminicola, however the period of infection of particular hosts were different. L.perenne and D. caespitosa were infected in early summer but F. rubra and P. pratensis in late summer or in the autumn. Morphological analysis of spores of P. graminis ssp. graminicola have shoved significant differences between populations obtained from L. perenne and D. caespitosa. Some differences were found between populations from F. rubra and P. pratensis also, but they need more study. Every year occurrence of stem rust on L. perenne and D. caespitosa and its relation with spring temperature in Radzików indicated that populations of patogen could overwinter in local turf. Incidental appearance of stem rust on F. rubra and P. pratensis in centre of Poland allowed to suppose that spores of these forms might be transfer by wind from other regions. The investigation revealed that stem rust can be dangerous for L. perenne grown for seed when infection occurs at flowering time. It has been established that infection of F. rubra and P. pratensis in autumn should not be disregarded. Damages of leaves by P. graminis ssp. graminicola substantially limited plant heading in the next year.

Keywords


grasses; harmfulness; Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola; stem rust

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