Zróżnicowanie morfologiczne i rozmieszczenie gatunków z rodzaju Dryopteris w Europie i byłym ZSRR [Morphological differentiation and distribution of Dryopteris species in Europę and the former Soviet Union]
Based on author’s field research and on verified herbarium material comparative studies on morphological variability and distribution pattern of Dryopteris species in Europe and in the former Soviet Union have been carried out. As a result it has been found that: 1) the Eastern Siberian-Commander’s taxon Dryopteris extremiorientalis V. Vasil . (= D. austriaca var . orientalis Fom.) is conspecific with D. expansa (C. Presl) Fraser-Jenkins. 2) west-Caucasian D. alexeenkoana Fom. (= D. dilatata var . pontica Alexeenko) is identical with D. dilatata s. str., 3) D. dilatata sensu Fomin from the Caucasus is identical with D. expansa, 4) D. affinis (Lowe) Fraser-Jenkins has appeared to be a new species for the European part of the former Soviet Union. Moreover, the distribution maps of D. expansa and D. amurensis in the Soviet Far East as well as D. expansa and D. dilatata in Slovakia were elaborated. Altitudinal distribution pattern of two latter species in the Alps, the Carpathians and the Caucasus was analysed .
Słowa kluczowe: Dryopteris, Europe, the Soviet Union, distribution, variability
Morfologiczne zróżnicowanie szyszek kilku gatunków Picea z Europy i Azji [Morphological differentiation of cones of several Picea species from Europe and Asia]
The studies were made on population samples of cones from five species of Picea A. Dietr. included in the subgenus Picea occurring in the boreal, sub-boreal, and Mediterranean part of Eurasia. There are : P. abies (L.) Karst., P. obovata Web., P. karaiensis Nakai i P. orientalis (L.) Link. from section Picea and P. omorica (Pancić) Purk. from section Omorica. Ten characters were analysed altogether and these were described with the help of arithmetical means. In the studies numerical data obtained by other authors were also utilized. Arithmetical means of characters for gene ral samples of species or for local population samples were compared mutually according to the Jentys-Szaferowa graphical method . Complete results of studies are already published .
Słowa kluczowe: variability, cones, Picea, Eurasia
Grzyby (Macromycetes) w lasach łęgowych i olsach w wybranych obszarach Europy i Ameryki Północnej [Macrofungi in alluvial and wet alder forests in selected areas of Europe and North America]
Diagnostic value of macrofungi was studied against the background of 13 forest units of the Alno-Padion and the Alnion glutinosae alliances in six countries in Europe and North America. Mycocoenological analysis was performed in seven ecological groups of fungi as regards substratum. Fungi growing in the forests of the Alnion glutionosae all. reflect mosaic pattern of habitats (hummocks and hollows) in forming different groupings of species of fungi on hummocks and different in hollows. These habitats also differ in seasonal appearance of fruit-bodies. Fungi occurring in the forests of Alno-Padion all. indicate rich, fertile soil of black earth type (with higromull). Specific xylophilous fungi also distinguish this habitat. Moreover mycogeographical remarks were made on fungi growing in alluvial forests (Alno-Padion all.) in Scandinavia, central and southern Europe and North America.
Słowa kluczowe: fungi, macrofungi, mycocoenology, ecological groups, ecology offorests
Szata roślinna wyspy Seili w południowozachodniej Finlandii [Vegetation of the island Seili in southwestem Finnland]
Stanisław Balcerkiewicz, Andrzej Brzeg, Anna Bujakiewicz, Marek Kasprowicz, Janusz Łuszczyński, Anna Rusińska, Wojciech Szwed, Zygmunt Tobolewski, Halina Wojterska, Maria Wojterska, Teofil Wojterski
The elaboration of the vegetation of the island Seili and of 11 neighbouring small islands comprises following items: the flora of the islands (lichens, mosses, hepatics and vascular plants), the plant communities (epilithic and terrestrial lichen communities, sea shore and innland meadows, xerothermic grassland and forest border communities, synanthropic plant communities, deciduous forests and thickets, occurrence of macromycetes in alder carrs, coniferous forests: dry pine forests, pine, spruce and pine-spruce forests on fresh and humid habitats, some structural aspects of the forest communities, complexes of plant communities) and the map of real vegetation.
Słowa kluczowe: flora, vegetation, phytosociological studies, cartography of vegetation
Flora wyspy Seili w południowozachodniej Finlandii [Flora of the island Seili in southwestem Finnland]
Andrzej Brzeg, Anna Bujakiewicz, Anna Rusińska, Wojciech Szwed, Zygmunt Tobolewski, Teofil Wojterski
Floristic investigations concerned cryptogamic and vacsular plants of the island Seili and of a group of neighbouring, small islands near Turku in southwestern Finnland. They were executed by following authors: the “Lichens flora” – by Z. Tobolewski; the “Moss flora” – by A. Rusiriska; the .Heparics flora” – by T. Wojterski; “A contribution to the Flora of macromycetes” – by A. Bujakiewicz and the “Plora of vascular plants” – by A. Brzeg and W. Szwed. The whole floristic documentation in form of herbarium sheets has been incorporated into the Herbarium of the Department of Taxonomy of the A. Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poz).
Słowa kluczowe: flora, lichens, mosses, hepatics, macromycetes, vascular plants
Zbiorowiska roślin zarodnikowych wyspy Seili w południowozachodniej Finlandii [Cryptogamic plant communities of the island Seili in southwestem Finnland]
Stanisław Balcerkiewicz, Anna Rusińska, Zygmunt Tobolewski, Maria Wojterska
Investigations on communities of cryptogamic plants occurring on the island Seili comprise following items: Epilithic lichen communities – elaborated by S. Balcerkiewicz and Z. Tobolewski, with 11 types of plant communities, in which lichens are dominant or even in which they present the only systematic group, forming the vegetation. Terrestrial lichen communities – elaborated by Z. Tobolewski and M. Wojterska, with dominating patches of Cladonia rangiferina-Cl. arbuscula community, growing mainly on thin humus layer, covering rocks and gentle slopes, exposed to the north and in the clearings inside the Cladonio-Pinetum association. Moss communities – elaborated by S. Balcerkiewicz and A. Rusiriska, with 20 different units, comprising exclusively epilithic communities. Their natural habitat are rocky slopes near the sea and abrupt slopes dividing pine and spruce forests. Some communities are related with anthropogenic influence.
Słowa kluczowe: plant sociology, Braun-Blanquet approach, communities, associations, lichens, mosses
Zbiorowiska łąk nadmorskich, łąk śródlądowych, muraw kserotermicznych i okrajków oraz zbiorowiska roślinności synantropijnej na wyspie Seili w południowozachodniej Finlandii [Sea shore meadows, inland meadows, xerothermic swards and forest border communities and synanthropic plant communities on the island Seili in southwestem Finnland]
Stanisław Balcerkiewicz, Anna Brzeg, Maria Wojterska
Sea shore meadows, the only natural formation of this group of plant communities on the island Seili, were elaborated by M. Wojterska. The main association is here Juncetum gerardii. The inland meadows, elaborated by A. Brzeg, occur only on the island Seili, on the area formerly used for agricultural purposes. On pastures and meadows nine plant communities have been distinguished. The five further communities are rare and occur on small areas only. Some of them are in regression. The xerothermophilous grasslands and forest border communities were studied by S. Balcerkiewicz and A. Brzeg. Two of them have been described as new associations: Potentillo-Yiscarietum, widely developing on shallow soils on rocky substratum and Cynancho-Origanetum; occurring mainly on calcareous soils on the island Lammasluoto. Two further communities are of thermophilous character. From 14 communities of synanthropic vegetation, studied by S. Balcerkiewicz and A. Brzeg only five (pathway swardscommunities, ruderal communities and one segetal community) are of synanthropic character sensu stricto.
Słowa kluczowe: sea shore and inland meadows, xerothermophilous grasslands and forest border communities, vegetation dynamics
Zespoły leśne i zaroślowe oraz kompleksy zbiorowisk roślinnych wyspy Seili w południowozachodniej Finlandii [Forest associations, thickets and complexes of plant communities on the island Seili in southwestem Finnland]
Stanisław Balcerkiewicz, Andrzej Brzeg, Anna Bujakiewicz, Marek Kasprowicz, Janusz Łuszczyński, Anna Rusińska, Wojciech Szwed, Zygmunt Tobolewski, Halina Wojterska, Maria Wojterska, Teofil Wojterski
The phytosociological description of forest associations was elaborated by following authors: – the deciduous forests and thickets by M. Wojterska (alder carrs – Lysimachio-Alnetum; fragments of lime forests. well developed hazel thickets), – the occurrence of macromycetes in alder carrs by A. Bujakiewicz (macroyceteson soil and on decaying logs and twigs) – the dry pine forests by Z. Tobolewski and M. Wojterska (Cladonio-Pinetum in different forms). – the pine, spruce and mixed pine-spruce forests on fresh and humid habitats by M. Kasprowicz and M. Wojterska, – some structural aspects of the forest communities by T. Wojterski, 1. Łuszczyński and M. Kasprowicz (forest structure diagrams. vegetation profiles) – complexes of plant communities by S. Balcerkiewicz and M. Wojterska
Słowa kluczowe: forest associations, thicket communities, forest structure, vegetation profiles, complexes of plant communities
Mapa roślinności rzeczywistej wyspy Seili w południowozachodniej Finlandii [Map of real vegetation of the island Seili in southwestem Finnland]
Teofil Wojterski, Halina Wojterska
On the map of real vegetation of the island Seili 37 plant communities were presented in form of colour surfaces. Three further units, occupying very small areas, were shown by signs. A large scale of the map (1: 2 000) allowed to present the distribution of plant communities in a detailed way (minimal surface sometimes smaller than 50 m2 ) . In vast Empetro-Pinetum patches it was possible to show units of lower rank than associations. Lichen communities, forming often a mosaic on enormous, glacially polished rocks, could be presented only as complexes of epilithic lichen communities. The map shows the stand of develpment of the vegetation in the year 1985. The succesional changes, which occur relatively quickly on abandoned arable fields, causing changes in spatial dustribution of plant communities, can further be studied on the base of the presented map.
Słowa kluczowe: vegetation cartography, map of real vegetation
Badania palinologiczne dwóch profili interstadialnych z obszaru środkowej Szwecji [Pollen-analytical study of the two interstadial profiles from Central Sweden]
The Early Vistulian interstadial complex in central and northern Sweden known as the Jamtland Interstadial most probably includes two interstadials: Brorup and Odderade. In studied material, according to the geologist theory, the Odderade Interstadial should be more expected. To check this hypothesis, pollen-analytical study of the two profiles from the central Sweden were carried out. Two diagrams were obtained which represent “cold pollen flora” and include several characteristic taxa e.g. Saxifraga oppositifolia type, S. hirculus type, Koenigia islandica, Oxyria type, Armeria, Bruckenthalia, Ephedra distachya type, and very high percentages of Artemisia and Gramineae.
Słoaw kluczowe: Vistulian , Jamtland Interstadial, Brorup, Odderade, pollen anlysis, central Sweden
Pyrenomycetes i Coelomycetes zebrane w lasach północnej Litwy [Notes on Pyrenomycetes and Coelomycetes from north Lithuanian forests]
The Lithuanian pyrenomycete flora is very poorly known. Investigations published during the last 40 years have treated e.g. Diatrypella verrucaeformis  and mostly.lignicolous pyrenomycetes  collected in S-Lithuania. The investigation begun in 1991 deal with population variablity and distribution of several species belonging to Pyrenomycetes and Coelomycetes. The collections were made in two regions of Lithuania. The region Pasvalis (N-Lithuania) is covered by forests dominated by Picea abies and Betula ssp., partially with very interesting patches of Fraxinus excelsior and Populus tremula forests. The region Ignalina (‘Aukstaitijos’ National Park, E-Lithuania) is covered by more continental forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. Comparative studies of the mycoflora of Fraxinus excelsior, Populus tremula, Betula verrucosa, Sorbus aucuparia and Salix have been started. Investigations were concerned upon the lignicolous Pyrenomycetes, especially occurring on Fraxinus excelsior and Populus tremula.
Słowa kluczowe: Pyrenomycetes, Coelomycetes, distribution, Lithuania
Flora interglacjalna z Korczewa na Białorusi (pogranicze obwodów: Mińskiego, Grodzieńskiego i Brzeskiego) [An Interglacial flora from Korczewo in Belarus (borderland of the Mińsk, Grodno and Brcst Districts)]
Kazimiera Mamakowa, Tatiana B. Ryłowa
The subject of the palaeobotanic investigation started at the Korchevo site in 1989 is the solution of some methodological problems which make it difficult to compare the results obtained by means of the pollen analysis methods in Poland and Belarus. Two profiles situated close to each other have been sampled for this purpose. One of them is studied in Kraków (K. Mamakowa) and the other in Mińsk (T. B. Rylova). The purpose of the study is besides a comparison of Interglacial vegetational succession at Korchevo with that at Przasnysz (50 km north of Warsaw). The sites, considered by both Polish and Belarusian geologists to be of the same geological age, were correlated by them with different interglacials within the Cromerian complex. The diagram from Korchevo will perhaps answer the question whether the Korchevo and Przasnysz Interglacials represent the same stratigraphic position.
Słowa kluczowe: Korchevo Interglacial, pollen analysis, methodological problems, vegetational succession, stratigraphic questions
Flora i charakterystyka geobotaniczna pasm: Velka Rača i Ušust w Słowackich Beskidach Zachodnich [The flora and geobotanical characteristics of the Velka Rača and Ušust range in the Slovak Western Beskidy Mts]
The floristic researches have been carried out in the area of the Velka Rača and Ušust range in the Slovak Western Beskidy Mts. The territory investigated covers 300 km2 and is situated at the borderline of Poland and Slovakia. The aim of the investigation is to provide a list of the vascular plant species and to present their vertical and horizontal distribution, habitats and plant communities. In the field studies about 10 000 records have been collected and a rich herbarium material has been gathered. In the hitherto collected material 557 plant species have been recognized (470 native ones and 87 established aliens). Among them there are 73 mountain species (28 high-mountain ones) and 49 xerothermic ones.
Słowa kluczowe: Slovakia, the Western Beskidy Mts, vascular plants
Badania nad naturalnymi mieszańcami Pinus mugo × P. sylvestris w Słowacji [Investigation on the natural hybrids Pinus mugo × P. sylvestris in Slovakia]
The upper Orava and the Oravska Magura regions are characteristic of a considerable number of peat-bogs. Some are even more interesting because of the occurence of Pinus mugo Turra and numerous hybrids of these species with P. sylvestris L. (= P. × rhaetica Briigger). In the Tisovnica forest reserve the phytosociological characterization and an analysis of morphological characters of individuals occurring in the transect going through the centre of the peat-bog were performed. Only a small part of these individuals could be included in P. mugo, the majority belonged to P. × rhaetica. Some individuals are examined biochemically in the Institute of Dendrobiology CSAV in Mlynany. The studies carried out in the “Mezi borarni” peat-bog reserve located in the Zuberec at the foot of the Tatras cover three generations of hybrids, different in age, in order to trace the direction of changes in their characters.
Słowa kluczowe: variability, hybrids, Pinus, Orava, Slovakia
Prunus fruticosa w Czechosłowacji [Prunus fruticosa in Czecho-Slovakia]
Jan J. Wójcicki, Karol Marhold
Morphological variability, distribution and spontaneous hybridization of Prunus fruticosa Pall. was analysed within the Czecho-Slovakian range of the species. Dot distribution maps based on the herbarium material critically revised for P. fruticosa and P. fruticosa × P. cerasus hybrids are published for Czecho-Slovakia for the first time. Also, frequency of P. fruticosa × P. cerasus in geographical coordinates 1° × 1° is analysed (Fig. 1).
Słowa kluczowe: Prunus fruticosa, Prunus cerasus, variability, hybridization, distribution, Czecho-Slovakia
Wybrane problemy synantropizacji flory roślin naczyniowych Wiednia [Some problems of synanthropisation of the vascular plant flora of Vienna]
In the floristico-ecological researches carried out in 1989 on the area of Vienna a special attention was paid to the spatial differentiation of species composition of vascular plants, according to the way and intensity Of the spatial utilization of that big town. Moreover, some new species for the flora of Vienna were stated and new localities of very rare and threatened taxons, in the range of all Austria were given. In the cartographical and phytosociological way, the phenomenon of expansion of two species: Angelica archangelica and Duchesnea indica was shown.
Słowa kluczowe: urban phytoecology, synanthropisation, flora, Vienna, Austria
Wzorzec wzrostu i struktura wiekowa populacji Rhododendron hirsutum i Rh. ferrugineum w Alpach – badania modelowe [Pattern of growth and population age structure of Rhododendron hirsutum and Rh. ferrugineum in the Alps – a model approach]
It was attempted to describe the pattern of growth of Rhododendron hirsutum L. and Rh. ferrugineum L. growing above the upper forest limit in the Alps. The material was taken during three successive visits in Hohe Tauer and in southern Tyrol (Austria) in July and September of 1984-1987. The following aims of the studies were put into consideration: 1) to make an algorithm for the evaluation of the relative age of individuals growing in natural conditions, 2) to study the age structure of several populations occurring in various localities and altitudes, 3) to construct the stochastic models enable the growing pattern of individuals or whole populations in perennial cycles to be investigated. The models base on theory of branching processes, and in order to construct them the algorithms of creative functions were used. The models underwent the validation procedure by means of the computer simulation. The alpine azaleas due to their morphological construction of the aboveground organs, and certain regularities in the growth pattern are promising objects for model investigations. In the result of mathematical modelling, the current empirical data may be used for investigation of the long-term population dynamics.
Słowa kluczowe: Rhododendron, age structure, population dynamics, mathematical modelling
Badania postglacjalnych flor na obszarze Alp [Study on postglacial flora of the Alps]
The research on fossil floras consisting in the analysis of plant macroscopic remnants (fruits. seeds. vegetative parts) was mainly a part of the conceived on a wide scale collective research. based on localities situated in the submontane and alpine belt. The richest material was collected during the work of the Swiss programme IGCP 158 B supervised by prof. G. Lang with the assistance of prof. B. Ammann and dr R. Schneider-Drescher. Lists of many floristic fossil plants were completed. history of forests and fluctuations of timberline were investigated. the influence of slopes exposition on forests differentiation was examined with the help of transects, similar transect enabled the reconstruction of water level change. The author expresses his gratefulness to all the persons who enabled him to conduct the research.
Słowa kluczowe: fossil plant remnants, timberline, Late-Glacial and Holocene environments, altitudinal belt changes, macrofossil diagram
Biogeograficzne i paleoekologiczne badania porównawcze na torfowiskach górskich w Europie, w latach 1980-1990 [Biogeographical and paleoecological comparative studies of the mountain mires in Europe (1980-1990)]
Comparative investigations on mountain mires of the alpine system, discussed here, were carried out with the help of geobotanical and paleobotanical methods. The results hitherto obtained include the proposal for mountain mire classification and outline of various problems connected with their age, origin, and development, as well as with paleogeography of peat-forming associations. An attempt was made at the correlation of mire location in the mountains with its significance for the reconstruction of paleoclimate, of vegetational zones formation, of upper forest limit osscilations, et eel. The studies carried out on the mire Sennalpenmoor allowed to reconstruct the history of climate and vegetation cover in Ammergebirge during the last 9000 years.
Słowa kluczowe: mountain mires, peat-forming associations, paleoclimate
Cechy bukowych starodrzewi w rezerwatach biosfery Centralnej Starej Planiny (Bułgaria) [Characters of the mature beech forests in the biosphere reserves of the Central Stara Pianina Mts (Bulgaria)]
The studies were carried out in biosphere reserves in the central part of the Stara Planina (Balkan) Mts, in cooperation with the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Ecology, Sofia) since 1978. These studies were concentrated on the following subjects: 1) variability of the mature beech forests with Fagus sylvatica in forest associations, 2) characteristics of the mature beech forests on the profiles: north-south and east-west, across the investigated valleys. As a result of these studies reports on the International Symposiums have been prepared: “Relationship – Man and Mountain ecosystems” – Project 6 on the Programme “Man and the Biosphere” (MaB) of UNESCO, 1983, Vraca, Bulgaria; “Conservation of natural areas and of the genetic material they contain” – Project 8 on the Programme “Man and the Biosphere” (MaB) of UNESCO, 1985, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria. Moreover, the monographs of the Tsaritschina nad Boatin reserves have been prepared
Słowa kluczowe: Stara Planina (Balkan) Mts., Seslerio-Fagetum, Cephalanthero-Fagetum, Luzulo nemorosae-Fagetum, Asperulo odoratae-Fagetum, Phyllitido-Aceretum, Galio-Abietetum, plant associations, forest characters’ variability, altitude, exposition, profile
Materiały do flory synantropijnej Półwyspu Bałkańskiego [Materials to the synanthropic flora of the Balkan Peninsula]
The author carried out floristic studies on the railway grounds of the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria) and Kragujevac (Yugoslavia) within the passenger and goods stations on the loading yards and platforms. In Plovdiv the floristic list contains 232 species of vascular plants (studies finished) whereas in Kragujevac the occurrence of 180 species have been recorded (incomplete studies). The spread of the particular species on the investigated area is connected with a different degree of tolerance to the contamination of the substrate and other unfavourable factors. The studies have shown that Rumex confertus Willd., and Eleusine tristachya (Lam.) Lam. are the new species for the synanthropic flora of Bulgaria and Lepidium viriginicum L. is a new species for the flora of Serbia.
Słowa kluczowe: vascular plants, distribution, railway grounds, Bulgaria, Serbia
Badania geobotaniczne i ekologiczne w górach Starej Planiny (Bułgaria) [Geobotanical and ecological studies in the Stara Pianina Mts (Bułgaria)]
The studies have been conducted in biosphere reserves in the central part of the Stara Planina (Balkan) Mts, in cooperation with the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Ecology, Sofia), since 1978. These studies are concerned with the following subjects: 1) Vascular plant flora, especially the altitudinal distribution of species. 2) Classification and characterization of plant communities. As a result of these studies several new plant associations have been described and phytosociological maps of three biosphere reserves (“Boatin”, “Caricina”, “Steneto”) have been made. 3) Topography and ecology of the boundary between beech forest and coniferous forest belts. 4) The dependence of vegetation on environment condition on profiles across valleys.
Słowa kluczowe: vascular plants flora, plant association, fitosociological maps, altitudinal vegetation distribution, ecology of plant species and associations, ecological indices, statistical and graphical models, biosphere reserves, Stara Planina (Balcan) Mts
Reakcja roślinności na zagospodarowanie turystyczne w masywie górskim Kapaonik (Serbia, Jugosławia) [Reaction of vegetation to the tourist management in the massive of Kopaonik (Serbia, Jugosławia)]
Stanisław Balcerkiewicz, Anna Rusińska
The aim of our studies was to record the phytocenotic structures developing in the higher elevations of the mountains as a result of intensive sport and recreation management. The massive of Kopaonik is a very suitable area for the studies of the early stages of the synanthropisation of vegetation, since it is protected as a national park and there was newly built a great centre of the intensive tourist activities and winter sports. The vegetation which develops in the earthworks, on the road slopes and along the ski trails joins the features of scree, snow-bed and “carpet” communties. Species from the Caryophyllaceae and Papilionaceae families are important in these communities. In the high situated sport and recreation areas of the Kopaonik massive 13 anthropogenic communities have been recorded. The investigations will be continued.
Słowa kluczowe: plant communties, pionieer vegetation, synanthropisation, tourist activity, mosses
Roślinność równin zalewowych rzeki Velika Morava w Serbii [Floodplain vegetation of Velika Morava river in Serbia]
Janina Borysiak, Aca Marković
The plant communities of the Velika Morava floodplains was the subject of field phytosociological studies in the years 1987-1988. The purpose of these studies was to find a possibly complete differentiation of the vegetation against the background of the habitat conditions. Great attention was payed to the spatial and dynamic relations between the phytocenoses of definite types, particulary in the aspect of anthropogenic transformations. About 100 phytosociological releves were made by the Braun-Blanquet method. On the investigated area 18 syntaxonomic units from Bidentetea, Phragmitetea, Plantaginetea, Artemisietea, Rhamno-Prunetea and Salieetea purpureae were distinguished. Zones of the alluvial vegetation running parallel to the river-bank were described.
Słowa kluczowe: geobotany, phytosociology, plant community ecology
Badania mikosocjologiczne w zespołach leśnych Parku Narodowego Jeziora Plitwickie (Chorwacja) [Mycoenological investigations in forest associations of the Plitvička Jezera National Park (Croatia)]
This study is the continuation of mycologicaI investigations carried out in beech forests at the different localities in Serbia and Bosnia [4, 5] as well as in some chestnut forests in Croatia . In the Plitvicka Jezera National Park lignicolous macrofungi from Aphyllophorales were published by Tortic in a number of contributions, but agarics, however also sporadically collected, have been investigated recently by Lisiewska and Tortic . This paper presents an attempt to investigate agarics from the mycocoenological point of view in the main forest associations of the Park on limestones and dolomites. During mycological research in September 1989, 120 species of macrofungi, mainly Agaricales, were identified. Quite a number of species characteristic of beech forest associations were established, and some conspicuous macrofungi were noted for the first time in the Park.
Słowa kluczowe: mycocoenological investigations, macrofungi, agarics, Yugoslavia
Badania w zbiorowiskach leśnych Macedonii (Jugosławia) [Investigations on forest communities of Macedonia (Yugoslavia)]
Anna Medwecka-Kornaś, Stefania Loster, Krystyna Towpasz, Eugieniusz Dubiel
Investigations on selected forest communities of the Yugoslavian part of Macedonia were carried out, in co-operation with botanists of the Cyril and Methody University in Skopje, in the years 1983-1989. Studies were focused on xerothermic oak forests of the mountain group of Galicica, beech forests of various parts of Macedonia, and on the ecology of selected species of the herb layer. A detailed phytosociological and phytogeographical characteristics of the Quercetum frainetto-cerris association, occurring in the lower forest zone of Galicica range, has been published. Five species from the herb layer of this association have been taken under ecological studies: Campanula spatulata ssp. sprunerana, Crocus pulchellus, C. veluchensis, Cyclamen hederifolium and Symphytum bulbosum. 105 phytosociological records from the beech forests will be the basis for a paper on the variability of these communities in Macedonia.
Słowa kluczowe: Macedonia, Quercetum frainetto-cerris, beech forests, geophytes
Zbiorowiska segetalne upraw zbożowych Macedonii [The segetal communities of cereal crops of Macedonia]
Maria Zając, Adam Zając, Rade Drenkovski
More then hundred phytosociological records made in the cereal crops of Macedonia during May/June 1990 and June 1991 were the base for distinguishing five communities of segetal weeds. There are quoted from common to rare: Turgenia latifolia-Adonis flammeus Tx. 1950, Anthemis austriaca-Consolida orientalis Slavnic 1944, Xanthium strumarium-Descurainia sophia ass. nova and Vaccaria-Vicia lutea Oberd. 1954. They indicate characteristic geographic dependence. The first community is connected with grey brown soils and terra rossa, and occurs at the hills surrounding the Vardar river. The second one occurs on the bottom of valley on the alluvial soils. The third is limited to the Ovče Pole plateau. The fourth occur in the south-eastern part of Macedonia. While the first three communities occur in the oak-forest zone Quercetum frainetto-cerris, the last one was found in the mediterranean zone of Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis.
Słowa kluczowe: segetal communities, Macedonia, weeds of cereal crops
Status fitocenotyczny i struktura populacji Linaria odora s.l. w południowo-wschodniej Europie [Phytocoenotic status and populations structure of Linaria odora s.l. in SE Europe]
Linaria odora (Bieb.) Fisch. (= L. dulcis Klok.) grows along the Don river and its two tributaries (former Soviet Union) on the loose grey alluvial or alluvial-lake terrace sands, with pH = (4.8) 5.0-6.5 (6.8). In natural or seminatural patches of psammophilous phytocoenoses the taxon was almost a constant component but it was usually dispersed in loose-sods. Species get ejected from the sheep-runs in the sand-steppes. L. odora was to be found in abundance inheavily antropogenical disturbed places, where the old density psammophilous-sods rapidly get mineralization and where the competitively stronger tussock grasses and mosses do not occur no longer. Along the N coastal of Azov Sea was lacking the suitable habitats for settlement of L. odora; dry steppe develops here on the loamy substratum.
Słowa kluczowe: Linaria odora, continental psammophyte, sand-steppes, SE Europe
Badania palinologiczne prób powierzchniowych i ich związek ze współczesną szatą roślinną w kaukaskich ostojach roślinności trzeciorzędowej [Palynological studies of surface samples and their relation to recent vegetation in Caucasian refugia of Tertiary vegetation]
Since 1980 exists a close scientific collaboration between the W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków and the L. Sh. Davitashvili Institute of Paleobiology Georgian Academy of Sciences, Tbilisi, Georgia. Subrecent pollen spectra of surface samples taken in various vegetation types of the Caucasus and Transcaucasia are studied. The palynological analysis is being curried out on surface samples taken from marsh, flood-plain. piedmont, middle mountain and highmountain forests and subalpine medows. At the same time a detailed geobotanical description of all types of forests are made. The results of palynological studies are correlated with the floristical compounds of the forests. Hitherto in the western part of Georgia the Colchis, Abkhasia and Adzharia, in Central Georgia the environment of Thilisi are elaborated. The eastern part of Georgia (Eastern Greater Caucasus and Transcaucasia) are in preparation.
Słowa kluczowe: Subrecent pollen spectra, Caucasus, Transcaucasia, vegetation
Badania porównawcze neogeńskich florobszaru Paratetydy wschodniej, północnej i części Paratetydy Centralnej i ich peryferii [Comparative studies of Neogene floras on the territory of Eastem Paratethys, northern part of Central Paratethys and their periferies]
Palynological studies of various Neogene sediments in the Bohemia [2,3,6], Polish Western Carpathians [4, 5], Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians  and on the territory of Georgia  are carried on. In general the development of the flora was more or less similar on the whole territory till the end of Badenian. Sarmatian was the turning point of the development of flora and vegetation on the two territories: Eastern Paratethys and Central Paratethys. Thanks to shurp elevation of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus a part of the Eastern Paratethys the Transcaucasia (Western Georgia) was transformed into a isolated province Colchis (Refugium of tertiary floras) with more subtropical vegetation. The flora and vegetation of Western Carpathians have more moderate character. The flora of the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians has a transitional position.
Słowa kluczowe: Neogene flora, Paratethys, palynology
Badania geobotaniczne w tajdze południowo-zachodniej Syberii [South western Siberian Taiga Project]
Janusz Bogdan Faliński, Franco Pedrotti, Krystyna Falińska
The aim and program of the Polish-Italian-Russian research (1989-1991) were formulated accordingly to conditions of expedition works our scientific interests (see ): (1) Recognition of the basic differentiation of the communities of primeval dark coniferous taiga in southwestern Siberia, close to the southern border of the ranges of main forest tree species (Picea obovata, Abies sibirica, Pinus cembra ssp. sibiricay. Presentation of this differentiation in the terms of the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological school, widely used in western and central Europe. (2) Determination of the substitute forest communities that replaced the main primary communities. (3) Recognition of the basic environmental conditions of the most important taiga communties. (4) Recognition of the basic elements of the structure of primary and secondary taiga communities, among other the population structure of some herb and tree populations. (5) Determination of ecological processes (fluctuation, regeneration and secondary succession) responsible for the stability and reconstruction of forest communities of the taiga after the catastrophic events, e.g. forest fire, clearcut. Mapping the dynamical tendencies in the vegetation. (6) Determination of the local toposequence of the communities by the interpretation of air photos and by the field mapping of vegetation.
Słowa kluczowe: Siberian taiga, boreal forests, Abies sibirica-Picea obovata-Pinus cembra ssp. sibirica, birch forest, forest raised bog, pine bog forest, birch bog forest
Badania systematyczno-geograficzne nad gatunkami rodziny Cyperaceae Wschodniej Syberii [The systematical and geographical studies on Cyperaceae in East Siberia]
The studies on systematic and geographical distribution of some species of Cyperaceae were carried out in the period of 1990-1991 at the southern part of Baikal Lake, in the vicinity of Irkuck in East Siberia. A special attention was paid to the occurrence of the species of that group in different plant formations. Many rare and new species for that region were found, and also for species of the genus Carex and Eriophorum the samples for further studies on population variability were gathered. At the same time, the data concerning distribution of the threatened and endangered species of Siberia were collected.
Słowa kluczowe: taxonomy, distribution, Cyperaceae, variability, endangered species, Siberia
Polskie wyprawy w góry Mongolii [Polish expeditions to the Mongolian mountains]
The author was three times in Mongolia (in 1974 and 1975 on the southern slope of the central Khangai Mts. and in the 1977 in the south-western Khentei Mts.) as a participant of the Polish-Mongolian Physico-Geographical Expeditions. The existence of the arid type of the plant vertical zones of the southern slope of the Central Khangai and the boreal one in the Khentei Mts. has been confirmed. The factors causing such pronounced differences in zonality while the differences in location are of barely 1.5° in geographical latitude were discussed. More detailed geographical and botanical observations were carried out in the Sant Valley (Khangai Mts.). The list of vascular plants, description of the plant communities made according to Braun-Blanquet method and the phytosociological map is the result of the botanical examinations. The differences of the vegetation and the abiotic elements of the habitat on the asymmetrical opposite (north and south) slopes was the object of the special studies.
Słowa kluczowe: Mongolia, Khangai Mts., Khentei Mts., Sant Valley, vertical plant zonality, flora, plant communities, phytosociological map
Stosunki florystyczne i fitosocjologiczne oraz biomasa paszowa w dorzeczu Dunda-Bajdałagijn-goł (Chentej, Mongolia) [Floristic and phytosociological relations and feeding biomass in the river-basin of Dunda-Bajdałagijn-goł (Chentej, Mongolia)]
The author carried out various geobotanical investigations within complex research of natural environmental resources in the region of the Dunda-Bajdalagijn-gol river-basin on the SE slope of Chentej in Mongolia. The investigations of that type were carried out in 1978 during Polish-Mongolian Expedition “Transmongolia 1978, Chentej 11”, organized by the Institute of Earth Sciences of Maria Skłodowska-Curie University in Lublin. The collected materials, both floristic, phytosociological and ecological ones, are at different stages of elaboration. So far, there have been published the whole of bryophytes (K. Karczmarz, F. Swies) and lichens flora (M. Olech, Kraków) as well as the initial data on plant communities and feeding biomass for breeding animals (F. Święs), The flora of vascular plants, however, as well as phytosociological properties of the whole of plant communities are still in the course of elaboration.
Słowa kluczowe: Mongolia, Chentej, flora, vegetation, feeding biomass
Glony Korei Północnej [Algae of North Korea]
Teresa Mrozińska, An Gi Sun
As a result of scientific cooperation between W. Szafer’s Institute of Botany the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Korean Academy of Sciences in Phenian an abundant algological material was gathered in 1987 in North Korea. It consisted of aerophytic algae and the algae present in the aquatic environment. The results of research on aerophytic algae were published in the periodical Algological Studies (1990: 29–47). This study comprises 37 taxa belonging to six systematic classes of algae. These were (ordered according to their proportional occurrence): Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Charophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Ulvophyceae. To acquire a more precise identification they were treated in such a way so as to obtain unialgal cultures. It was indispensable because of the polymorphism occurring frequently in these algae. These cultures also afforded for observation of the full development cycle. The most interesting aerophytic taxa found there were: Chlorozebra multinucleatum (Reisigl), Parallela novae-zelandiae Flint, Chlorella subsphaerica (Reisigl) Komarek and Scotiellopsis rubescens Vinatzer. All mentioned taxa were found on various trees on almost all the area of North Korea. The further study on algae from Chlorellales and Desmidiales orders is being prepared for publishing. It contains descriptions of 64 taxa characteristic for eutrophic or oligotrophic environments (dystrophic reservoirs), being a valuable comparative material for research on Holarctic algae. The most interesting algae found there in water biotops were: Pediastrum simplex Meyen var. biwaense Fukush., P. duplex Meyen var. gracillimum W. et G. S. West, Tetrallantos lagerheimii Teil., Fotterella tetrachlorelloides Buck, Kirchneriella cornuta Kors., K. subcapitata Kors., and Scenedesmus producto-capitatus Schmula (Figs. 1-5).
Słowa kluczowe: aerophytic algae, tree bark, lichenized group of algae, algae of waterbiotopes, eutrophic, oligotrophic, North Korea
Badania nad zmiennością szyszek drzew szpilkowych w Korei (KRL-D) [Investigation on variability of cones of coniferous trees from Korea (Korean People’s Republic)]
The studies aimed at the knowledge of variability range of selected cones from several species of conifers. The studies were carried out on the materials collected from the Paekdu-san Massif, located in the northern part of the country, in addition, scarce material was collected from the Miochan-san Mountains, located farther to the South. The collection included population samples cones of: Larix olgensis Henry, Picea koraiensis Nakai and P. jezoensis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Carr [= P. ajanensis (Lind. et Gord.) Fisch. ex Carr]. The cones were examined in respect of the length and width of cone, length and width of scale, and at Picea also of length of the upper part of scale. The studies demonstrated very slight differences between local samples, which evidence small genetic differentiation of these taxa. Results of the studies are already published [1, 2].
Słowa kluczowe: variability, cones, Larix, Picea, Korea
Macromycetes Korei Północnej [Macrofungi of North Korea]
Władysław Wojewoda, Zofia Heinrich, Halina Komorowska
The material for the present study was collected by Prof. K. Zarzycki, his wife Dr B. Zarzycka and by authors during the years 1982-1986 (5 expeditions to Korea). About 360 species of macrofungi are reported from North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea). The list contains 224 species recorded for the first time from North Korea (80 species of Corticiaceae). The most notable findings are e.g.: Platygloea peniophorae, Dacryopinax spathularia, Femsjonia orientalis, Boreosterum radiatum, Punctularia strigosozonata, Terana coerulea; Gomphus floccosus, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Boletinus asiaticus, Tylopilus plumbeoviolaceus, Marasmius pallidocephalus, M. pulcherripes, Collybia subnuda, Tricholoma nauseosum, Descolea flavoannulata, Pleuroflammula flavomarginata, Geastrum mirabile, Lysurus mokusin, Phallus rubicundus, Pseudocolus fusiformis. List of all Korean fungi contains at the present ca. 1640 species (Index of Korean Cryptogamic plants, Pyongyang 1983, and examined materials of the authors).
Słowa kluczowe: Asia, North Korea, macrofungi
Laboulbeniales (Ascomycotina) zebrane w Japonii [Some Laboulbeniales (Ascomycotina) collected in Japan]
A list of species of fungi from the order Laboulbeniales collected by Tomasz Majewski in Japan between November 1984 and October 1985 was given. He collected these fungi near Shizuoka City in central part of Honsiu Island, and on Iriomote Island of the Ryukyu Archipelago. The collection (430 specimens) was brought to Poland and then described in four papers. These papers contain localities of 47 species and, among others, descriptions of 27 species new for Japan, including 7 species new for science.
Tomasz Majewski, Keiichi Sugiyama
Słowa kluczowe: Fungi, Laboulbeniales, Japan
Studia nad ekosystemami bagiennymi Azji Wschodniej [Studies on wetlands in East Asia]
The studies on wetlands in East Asia (including mire, swamp forest, salt-marsh and mangal ecosystems) were carried out during a two-year study in Japan. The problems evaluated concerned: the analyses of environmental factors (e.g. geology, climate and hydrology) influencing the formation of wetlands; the establishment of wetland classification system, and the study of negative human impact. Special attention was devoted to the wetlands of Central and Northern Japan. The new ideas, concerning peculiar characteristics of Japanese mires and their formation under volcanic influence, were formulated. From the studies of anthropopression the conclusions were drawn, relating the degree of wetland transformation to their distribution pattern and modes of socio-economical development.
Słowa kluczowe: wetlands, anthropopression, transformation, East Asia
Prace systematyczne, florystyczne i chorologiczne prowadzone w pohidniowo-zachodniej Azji i we wschodnim Śródziemnomorzu przez Zakład Systematyki i Geografii Instytutu Dendrologii PAN w Kórniku [Systematic, floristic and chorological investigations in South West Asia and eastem Mediterranean, conducted in the Laboratory of Systematics and Geography, Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Komik]
Adam Boratyński, Kazimierz Browicz, Jerzy Zieliński
Since 1960 the authors developed the systematic, floristic and chorological investigations in South-West Asia and eastern Mediterranean region. In this field they collaborated with Flora Iranica, Flora of Turkey and Mountain Flora of Greece. As a result of these works, over 120 publications was written; two atlases – Chorology of trees and shrubs in South- West Asia and adjacent regions (vol. 1-8) and Chorology of trees and shrubs in Greece; description of two new genera (Cyprinia and ×Malosorbus) and 26 new species. Moreover, between 1975 and 1990 the field trips were organized, to Turkey (3 times), Iran, Greece (8 times) and Pakistan. These works were partly sponsored by US Department of Agriculture and The Goulandris Natural History Museum, Kifissia, Greece.
Słowa kluczowe: systematics, floristics, chorology, trees, shrubs, South-West Asia, E Mediterranean
Reakcja populacji Cyclamen hederifolium na zróżnicowanie dynamiczne zbiorowisk buczyn w Promontorio del Gargano, Włochy [Response of Cyclamen hederifolium population to the dynamie differentiation of beech forest communities in the Promontorio del Gargano, Italy]
The research on the population structure was conducted in 1984-1991 in the dynamically differentiated forest communities. It was shown that Cyclamen hederifolium Aiton (= C. neapolitanum Ten) clearly responded to any disturbances in the structure of these communities. The spatial distribution and size structure of Cyclamen hederifolium changed significantly in relation to the degree of deformation of the community (Fig. 1). Populations in the communities undergoing fluctuations were in the state of dynamic equilibrium. Populations in the communities undergoing degeneration were characterized by regression. The studied populations differed in the number and size of clone, what determine the type of their spatial distribution. The largest clones developed in the population. which was in the state of dynamic equilibrium. the smallest – in the population. which was in the colonization phase. i.e. in the communities undergoing regeneration. Then, it was reflected by the mass occurrence and the highest density of Cyclamen population.
Słowa kluczowe: Cyclamen hederifolium, geophyte, population structure, dynamics of beech forest community
Tendencje dynamiczne w roślinności Promontorio del Gargano, Włochy [Dynamical tendencies in the vegetation of Promontorio del Gargano, Italy]
Janusz Bogban Faliński, Franco Pedrotti
The vegetation in Gargano, especially in Bosco Quarto, comprises also vegetation released from long-term anthropopressure, which appears mainly in abandoned, scattered settlements and numerous old fields at the bottom of carstic valleys. Forest and grassland vegetation in Bosco Quarto is marked by the effect of long-term anthropopressure variable in form, persistence and intensity. The geobotanical relation and ecological phenomena prevailing here were considered convenient for veryfing our earlier geobotanical-cartographic concepts. This research resulted in two double-sheet maps of the vegetation and of the dynamic tendencies in it and two derived maps supplemented by a common theoretical-methodical text and the necessary documentation. The map of Bosco Quarto in Gargano describes the dynamic state of the vegetation within a given time by notions that determine the dominance of fundamental ecological processes: fluctuation, primary and secondary succession, regression, degeneration and regeneration (Faliriski, Pedrotti 1990).
Słowa kluczowe: man impact on the vegetation, vegetation dynamics, mapping of vegetation processes, secondary succession, degeneration, regression, regeneration, fluctuation, submediterranean vegetation
Wyprawa naukowa Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego do Afryki równikowej – 1974/75 [Polish scientific expedition of the Łódź University to equatorial Africa – 1974/1975]
The result of our five-month car scientific expedition to Equatorial Africa in 1974/75 is summarized from the point of view of nature photography and scientific exploration. The herbarium of vascular plants, collected from Bordeaux in France tilI Abidjan in Ivory Coast within ca. six climatic plant regions of tropical and subtropical zones of West Africa, amounts to ea. 1100 sheets including 335 species of plants belonging to 248 genera and 87 families. The whole floristic material is now prepared for publication. The photographical documentation, dealing mainly with botanical and sightseeing topics, is concerned with the whole route of the expedition (cf. the map above). It consists of ca. 3000 black and white photographs of the size 6 x 6 cm and ea, 4500 coloured dias including ca. 350 ones of the sizes 6 x 6 and 6 x 9 cm. A part of the photographs is already published in the quoted papers [1-5].
Słowa kluczowe: West Africa, vascular plants, photographical documentation
Zasięgi geograficzne i wymagania siedliskowe paprotników w strefie sawannowej Afryki tropikalnej [Range and habitat preferences of pteridophytes in the savanna woodland zone of tropical Africa]
Distributional patterns and habitat preferences are being studied in the ferns and fern allies of the savanna woodland zone in tropical Africa. These studies are based on the author’s field work in Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya, Nigeria and northern Cameroon in 1971-1973, 1975ns and 1977ns, on herbarium materials collected by S. Lisowski, K. A. Nowak, A. Bodenghien and F. Malaisse in Zaire and Rwanda, and on revision of pteridophyte collections at AAU, B, BM, C, EA, GENT, K, KRA, KRAM, LG, P, POZG, S, UPS, W, WRSL, WU and other herbaria. Intercontinental and intracontinental disjunctions as well as the existence of vicarious taxa are being revealed and explained by the action of historical factors. Ecological aspects of pteridophyte distribution are being analysed, with a particular emphasis on life-forms, seasonal patterns of growth and dormancy, reproductive biology, drought resistance and fire resistance.
Słowa kluczowe: drought resistance, fire resistance, life-form, Nigeria, Pteridophyta, Tanzania, Zambia
Badania botaniczne w Afryce Centralnej [Botanical studies in Central Africa]
These botanical studies based on the author’s 13 years field work in the Central Africa (Zaire, Guinea, Chad, Congo, Cameroon, Uganda), on his own herbarium collections from numerous world herbaria. Working mainly on taxonomy of Asteraceae and Convolvulaceae the author descrihed more than 100 new plant taxa. During his stay in Zair author worked also on phytosociology of steppe savannas and hydrophilous plant communities.
Słowa kluczowe: taxonomy, Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, flora, Central Africa
Polskie badania archeobotaniczne w Afryce Północnej: Armant (Egipt) [Polish archaeobotanical studies in North Africa: Armant (Egypt)]
Plant material comes from the neolithic sites MA21183 and MA21a/83 at Armant in the Upper Egypt. It includes fruits, seeds, fragments of ears, grass stems, vegetative parts of other plants, charcoal and scarce impressions on the daub. Macrofossils are preserved in charred and uncharred condition. The determination of plant macrofossils is not completed, till now mostly cereals were identified: Triticum dicoccum, T. monococcum, Hordeum vulgare and Panicum miliaceum. Other cultivated plants were represented by seeds of Lens culinaris and Linum usitatissimum. Citrullus colocynthis, Echinochloa sp. and Setaria sp. belonged to wild plants probably harvested for food.The other wild herbs belonged to Cyperaceae and Compositae, trees were represented by charcoals of Tamarix sp. and Acacia sp.
Słowa kluczowe: palaeoethnobotany, macrofossils, Neolithic, Upper Egypt
Polskie badania archeobotaniczne w Afryce północnej: Wadi Kubbaniya (Egipt) [Polish archaeobotanical studies in North Africa: Wadi Kubbaniya (Egypt)]
Ewa Madeyska, Zofia Ttomczyńska
Four of the Late Paleolithic sites in Wadi Kubbaniya produced charred remains of plants (most of them charred Cyperus tubers). All sites were located on the tops of dunes overlooking what was then floodplain of the Nile. They were reoccupied many times, and plant remains were recovered from almost every occupation level. The overall bulk of plant remains was not so large. but enough to say something about local diet and subsistence during the Late Paleolithic.
Słowa kluczowe: palaeoethnobotany, desert macrofossils, Late Paleolithic, Egypt
Wpływ ognia na roślinność sawanny afrykańskiej [Fire impact on the vegetation of the African savanna]
The author had an opportunity to study the pyrophytic vegetation in Zambia, in 1972/73, and in northern Nigeria, in 1977/78. Special attention was paid to the life forms of particular species and to the phytosociological and phenological features of two plots in the open savanna near Lusaka. The studied pyrophytes represented four groups of the Raunkiaer’s classification: phanerophytes, hemicryptophytes, geophytes (mainly with shallowly located underground organs) and therophytes. A part of herbaceous plants had woody underground organs typical of “geoxylic suffrutices”. On the savanna plots near Lusaka hemicryptophytes prevailed. The following phenological phases were distinguished there: the first phase of early regeneration after inflagration, the second phase of domination of tall grasses in the rainy season and the third phase of the yellowing of the grasses in the dry season.
Słowa kluczowe: grassy savanna, Zambia, pyrophytes, Raunkiaer’s classification, phenology
Polskie badania archeobotaniczne w Afryce północnej: Tadrart Acacus (Libia) [Polish archaeobotanical studies in north Africa: Tadrart Acacus (Lybya)]
Rock shelters situated in the Acacus mountains in SW Libya were inhabited several times by nomadic tribes during Epipaleolithic and Neolithic times. Rich material of plant macrofossils recovered in these shelters included several herbaceous species, fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca and charcoals. Several species were collected for food or other uses.
Słowa kluczowe: palaeoethnobotany, macrofossils, epipaleolithic, neolithic, SW Libya
Polskie badania archeobotaniczne w Afryce północnej: Nabta Playa (Egipt) [Polish archaeobotanical studies in north Africa: Nabta Playa (Egypt)]
Several Late Paleolithic and Neolithic settlements were found during archaeological excavations at the site Nabta Playa, southern Egyptian Sahara. Large quantities of charred plant remains (grass grains, Leguminosae seeds, Ziziphus seeds, unknown tubers) were recovered in one settlement. They all belong to wild plants which were probably collected for food.
Słowa kluczowe: Paleoethnobotany, desert, macrofossils, neolithic, Egypt
Strefowość roślinności pobrzeża Morza Śródziemnego w regionie Burg El-Arab (północny Egipt) [Vegetational zonation of mediterranean coasts in Burg El-Arab region (north Egypt)]
The Western Mediterranean coastal land of Egypt is characterized by prominent physiographic variations. The present study is an assessment of description the relationships between the vegetation distribution and local environmental variation in the Burg El – Arab area, 48 km south-west of Alexandria (30°54’N, 29°33′ E). A zonal transect (NE to SW), through four following areas, was made: I – a belt of white oolithic sand dunes with height from 1 to 15 m (about 500 m broad), II – the salt marsh which elevation varies from 0,5 to 2 m (about 1 km broad), III – a limestone rocky hill which in certain point reaches a height of 55 m (about 2,5 km broad). In each zone the kind of substrate was analyzed, and the floristic and phytosociological documentation was carried out (Fig. 1).
Słowa kluczowe: phytogeography, ecology, vegetational zonation
Roślinność północnej Algierii [Vegetation of northern Algieria]
Teofil Wojterski, Maria Wojterska
Botanical investigations, carried on in Algieria in the years 1982-1989, concerned floristic, phytogeographic, phenological and phytosociological problems. Detailed observations have been made in the northern regions of the country. Only a few data derive from the border of the Sahara desert and from the Massif of Hoggar. Floristic observations have been made mainly in the central part of northern Algeria between the coast and the mountain ranges of the Tell-Atlas (especially of the Blida-Atlas and the Djurdjura) and in the Aures-Massif. The phytogeographical studies have been localised within a rectangle of the surface of about35 000 km2 (100 km x 350 km,beginning on the Algerian coast and ending in the region of the semideserts around Laghouat (Fig. 1 and 2). Phenological observations concerned the changes of aspects in some communities in the region of El Harrach (Fig. 3). Phytosociological studies comprised all groups of plant communities: forests, maquis, garrigues, and synanthropic vegetation, based in total on about 1000 phytosociological releves.
Słowa kluczowe: flora of vascular plants, distribution of plants, phenological aspects, communities and associations, Africa
Szata roślinna północno-zachodniego Sórkapp Land (Spitsbergen) [Flora and Vegetation of NW Sörkapp Land (Spitsbergen)]
Botanical investigations in NW Sorkapp Land were carried out in the summer seasons of 1982 and 1985. In the unglaciated territory (area of ea. 100 sq. km) about 82 species and some taxa of lower taxonomic rank of vascular plants have been found. On the basis of 285 releves made according to the Braun-Blanquet method 28 plant communities have been distinguished. The spatial distribution of plant communities has been shown in two phytosociological maps. The map of distribution of three plant formations in Sorkapp Land, Le. the poor tundra, the Arctic desert, and peat-lands, has also been prepared. On the basis of the floristic criteria Sorkapp Land has been distinguished as an independent phytogeographic district. Ecological observations were focused on the phenology of plants, participation of life forms, and the propagation processes.
Słowa kluczowe: Spitsbergen, Arctic flora, plant communities, geobotanical problems
Zbiorowiska roślinne i ekologiczny monitoring południowego Spitsbergenu [Plant communities and ecological monitoring of southern Spitsbergen]
Krystyna Grodzińska, Barbara Godzik
Field studies were carried out in southern Spitsbergen (Hornsund region) during the successive expeditions in 1985 and 1986. Plant communities of a small watershed Ariekanunen-Fugleberget were distinguished and characterized on the basis of 160 phytosociological records. The content of heavy metals and cesium-137 was determined in several moss and lichen species using the two as bioindicators of environmental pollution with these elements. It was found that the content of metals in the material collected in Spitsbergen is lower than in central Europe and southern Scandinavia. The content of heavy metals, total S, N and P in two moss species (Sanionia uncinata and Hylocomium splendens) growing within the Alle alle colony was determined. It was found, that the mosses growing within bird colony accumulate more metals and nutrients than the mosses occurring outside the colony. The level of heavy metals was defined in vascular plants and in herbivorous bird (Plectrophenax nivalis). The concentration of metals are higher in birds than in plants. The greatest accumulation of heavy metals was found in bone and liver.
Słowa kluczowe: plant communities, heavy metals, mosses, lichens, bird colony
Badania geobotaniczne Kaffiöyry (NW Spitsbergen) [Geobotanical investigations of Kaffiöyra (NW Spitsbergen)]
W. Gugnacka-Fiedor, W. Plichta
Rośliny zarodnikowe i szata roślinna południowo-zachodniego Spitsbergenu (Arktyka) [Cryptogamic flora and vegetation of SW Spitsbergen (Arctica)]
Investigations on the vegetation and cryptogamic flora of SW Spitsbergen were carried out in the summer seasons of 1982 and 1985. They were a part of complex studies on the natural environment of SW Spitsbergen, co-ordinated by the Laboratory for Polar Research of the Institute of Geography of the Jagiellonian University. The investigations were focused on the flora of cryptogamic plants and structure and distribution of plant communities. The large number of phytosociological releves (285) made according to the Braun-Blanquet method were the basis for differentiation of 28 types of plant communities. The spatial distribution of plant communities has been shown in two phytosociological maps. Rich herbarium materials were collected. Preliminary studies enabled 250 taxa of lichens (among them 170 species are new to study area; most of them very rare or new to Spitsbergen), 80 species of mosses, 15 species of hepatics, 28 species of macromycetes and 28 species of lichenicolous fungi (among them 14 species are new to Svalbard, 2 genera and 4 species are new to science).
Słowa kluczowe: Arctica, Spitsbergen, plant communities, lichenes, fungi, hepatics, mosses
Badania geobotaniczne w rejonie Ziemi Wedela Jarlsberga (Bellsund, Spitsbergen Zachodni) [Geobotanical investigation in the region of Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Bellsund, Western Spitsbergen)]
The author carried out floristic and phytosociological investigations in the Western Spitsbergen, at the edge of Bellsund, upon the territory of North-West part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land. Geobotanica1 investigations were carried out within complex research of natural environment. They took place in 1987 and 1988 during the 2nd and the 3rd stage of the Geographical Expedition of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin to Spitsbergen. These expeditions are organized each year in summer season, starting from 1986. In this situation the main aim of geobotanical investigations is to elaborate the whole of flora and tundra communities as well as to examine their habitat conditions. The collected floristic and phytosociological materials are at different stages of elaboration. As far as possible, these are either elaborations carried out individually or group elaborations.
Słowa kluczowe: Arctica, Bellsund, flora, vegetation, plant succession
Pagórki torfowe na wyspie Króla Jerzego (Antarktyka) [The moss peat-mounds on King George Island (Antarctica)]
Jerzy Fabiszewski, Bronisław Wojtuń
The moss peat-mounds were found on King George Island (South Shetland Island.). They reach 1.0 m in heigh, 13-15 m in diameter and are located 36 m a.s.l. They appear to have originated close to a penguin colony, since feathers of these birds occur at the bottom. Initially, the peat consists of Calliergidium austro-stramineum; then it is mixed with Drepanocladus uncinatus and Polytrichum alpinum. There is no trace of the characteristic peat-forming species which developed deep accumulations of moss peat elsewhere in maritime Antarctic, Le. Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Polytrichum alpestre. The surface of the banks is eroded and covered by living Poytrichum alpinum, Drepanocladus uncinatus, Deschampsia antarctica and different lichens. This suggests that banks now are in stagnant stage. Radiocarbon dating of peat from the base of these deposites suggests that they originated about 4090 years B.P.
Słowa kluczowe: moss peat-mounds, King George Island, Antarctica
Flora porostów i szata roślinna południowych Szetlandów (Antarktyka) [Lichen flora and vegetation of South Shetland Islands (Antarctica)]
Lichenological investigations in South Shetland Islands were carried out during Xlth Antarctic Expedition of the Polish Academy of Sciences (1986-1988) and in the summer season of 1989/90 and XVIth Polish Expedition. There were a part of ecological studies on Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems co-ordinated by BlOTAS program and Prof. Dr S. Rakusa-Suszczewski from Department of Polar Ecology of the Institute of Ecology of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The main studies on extinction and spatial distribution of lichen species were carried out on King George Island in the Admiralty Bay region and King George Bay region (Lions Rump). On Livingston vegetation map and list of species before the establish Antarctic base were prepared. 170 species from Admiralty Bay region, 104 from Lions Rump, 150 from Livingston are reported. Among them 110 are new to King George Island, 110 new to Livingston, 80 to the Southern Hemisphere. Thelocarpon cyaneum – a new species was described from King George Island.
Słowa kluczowe: Antarctica, South Shetland Islands, lichen flora, plant communities, ecology
Roślinność lądowa regionu Zatoki Admiralicji i Zatoki Króla Jerzego (wyspa Króla Jerzego, Szetlandy Południowe. Antarktyka) – problemy ekologii zbiorowisk i populacji roślin naczyniowych [Terrestrial vegetation of the Admirality Bay and King George Bay region (King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) – ecological studies of plant communities and populations of vascular plants]
Kazimierz Zarzycki, Adam Barcikowski
The investigations were carried out during the Antarctic Expeditions in January 1988 and from December 1989 to February 1990. The vicinity of the Polish Antarctic Station “Arctowski” was the main area of interest. The studies concerned: the floristic composition of the vegetation (transects and Braun-Blanquet method), biomass, chlorophyll (a+b) contents in different plants communities, detailed distribution and phenology as well as population structure of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica. Moreover, samples of plants and soils were collected to determine the heavy metal contamination. The problem of conservation of nature were discussed.
Słowa kluczowe: Antarctica, Admiralty Bay, King George Bay, King George Island. vegetation, biornass, plant population, Colobanthus quitensis, Deschampsia antarctica
Makroskopowe szczątki roślin górnej kredy i trzeciorzędu na Wyspie Króla Jerzego (Południowe Szetlandy, Zachodnia Antarktyda) [Macroscopic plant remains from Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica)]
Leaf impressions found in the Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks of King George Island, West Antarctica were collected during the Antarctic Scientific Expeditions of the Polish Academy of Sciences in years 1977-1986. The oldest floras of Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene ages provide evidence for a warm climatic phase. Late Eocene through Early Oligocene floras indicate another warm period. The youngest floras of Oligocene – Miocene boundary age point to a temperature or cool-temperate climate.
Słowa kluczowe: Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary fossil leaves, Antarctica, climate
Badania porównawcze biologii i ekologii północnoamerykańskich ekspansywnych gatunków nawłoci (Solidago L. spp.) [Comparative investigation of biology and ecology of some northamerican expansive goldenrods (Solidago spp.)]
Małgorzata Guzikowa, Paul F. Maycock
In south-eastern Ontario, Canada, observation on environmental requirements and biological characteristics of three northamerican expansive “Solidago canadensis-complex” species (S. gigantea Ait., S. altissima L. and S. canadensis L. var. canadensis) had been done in 1980. Besides, at Mississauga, Ontario, detailed data on stmcture and organisation of about 30 clones of those species had been collected (that part of work had been done by both authors), during the all growing season. The clones had been of different age and size, and the data were used later for comparison to parallel data from southern Poland. It was found, among others, that there was significant difference in health of those plants at primary and secondary areas of their occurrence: the plants in Canada had a large number of their natural enemies which attacked them in masses and destroyed on a large scale. In Poland instead health of S. canadensis and S. gigantea (S. altissima does not occur there) is still very good.
Słowa kluczowe: Solidago gigantea, S. altissima, S. canadensis, biology, environment, expansion, clone
Występowanie gatunków rodzaju Ludwigia na Kubie [The occurrence of the species of the genus Ludvigia in Cuba]
During his stays in Cuba, nine months in 1981-82 and four months in 1989, the author investigated the taxonomic differentiation and geographic distribution of the Ludwigia L. species in this country. Taking a part in some expeditions organized by the Botanical Garden of the University of Havana (Jardin Botanico Nacional), he collected herbarium specimens in various provinces; in the Western and Middle Cuba (Pinar del Rio, Isla de la Juventud, La Habana, Matanzas), as well as in the Eastern ones (Guantanamo, Santiago de Cuba, Granma, Carnagiiey). He made also the revision of all herbarium specimens preserved in the Cuban Herbaria: older ones (1850-1960) in HAC and more new (1975-1988) in HAJB. The following Ludwigia species have been stated in Cuba: L. peruviana, L. decurrens, L. erecta, L. inclinata, L. sedoides, L. octovaivis, L. leptocarpa, L. hyssopifolia, L. peduncularis (endemic!), L. uruguayensis, L. peploides, L. torulosa, L. microcarpa, L. simpsonii, L. stricta (endemic!), L. repens, L. helminthorrhiza (new for Cuba), and L. palustris (?).
Słowa kluczowe: Onagraceae, Ludwigia, section, genus, species, endemic
Z. Mirek, J.J. Wójcicki